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Official Crime Statistics (OCS):
Black and Asian people are over-represented in CJS - blacks make up 2.8% of population but 11% of
prison population. White people are under-represented
Limitations of OCS is that they don't tell us who us more likely to commit an offence

Victim surveys:
Ask individuals what…

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One response is the formation of delinquent subcultures, especially by young unemployed black males,
producing higher levels of utilitarian crime (e.g. theft)
Racist policing often leads to the unjustified criminalisation of some members of minority groups.
However even if police do act in racist ways, Lea & Young argue that…


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