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  • Created by: amy
  • Created on: 17-10-12 19:36

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Elements have a......
Mass number p +n ­also called the nucleon number.
Atomic number ­ p ­also called the proton number.
Isotopes are different atomic forms of the same element with different number of
neutrons but same number of protons.
Most elements have 1 or 2 stable isotopes
i.e. carbon12
carbon14 tends to be radioactive, it decays into other elemtns and gives out
radioatiinon. Radioactiviety comes from radioactive isoptpes which are unstable and
undergo nuclear decay spitting out ihgh enrgy waves or particles.
When a nuclei decays it will spit out 1 or more out of the 3 types of radiation. In tis
process it may become a whole different element.
When an atom loses or gains electrons so, it becomes an ion and its known as
The 3 types of ionising radiation alpha, beta and gamma.
Alpha is posively charged and forms and ion as it pulls an ledctrons out of orbit when
it passes near an atom
Beta is negatively charged and forms an ion as it pushes an electrons out of orbit as
like charges repel.
Gamma simply interacts which an atom and transfer energy, it en electron then had
enough energy it will break free from teh atom.
Helium 4 2, nuclei
2 protons and 2 neutrons
Big heaby and slow moving. So this allows enough time for the alpha particle to pass
an atom and have successful ionisation due to enough time as their slow moving.
Positively charged.
Stongly ionising
Doesn't penetrate that far as it can be stopped by a skin, paper, cardboard.
Electron o1particle.emitted from a nucleus.
Quite small quite fast
Negatively charged.
Moderately ionising.
Penetrates moderately far and can be stopped by thin aluminium
Electromagnetic radiation ­ gamma rayes are waves!
Strongly penetrating.
Weakly ionsing ­can penetrate very far into materials without actually interacting wit
an atom ­ so less ions formed.
Stopped by thick lead or very thick concrete.
Nuclear fission : splitting of an uranium atoms.
Nuclear fission is a a type of nuclear reaction whic releases alot of energy from
uranium or plutonium toms in a nuclear reactor realeases via a chain reaction.
Chain reaction:
In a chain reaction you firstly have

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A slow moving neutron fired at a nucleus of uransium 235, which then means
that the nucleus of uransium 235 will absorb the neutron and this will cause it to
become unstable and spit out.
2) It will spit out 2 ligjter elements wihch are called daughter neuclei and alongside
thermal energy.…read more

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­ like charges repel. As thus measn that it has to be held in a magnetic eild
than a phyicisla container as any material wouldn't stand suc conditions it would
simply vaporise.
Experimental reactors present but none of tem have generated electricityas it takes
more power to make te rigt conditioning of the reactor than the reactor can produce.…read more


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