TOPIC 2: Software & Hardware Components of an Information System (ICT AS OCR New Spec For First Teaching 2008)

For OCR first teaching 2008

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  • Created by: Sheldon
  • Created on: 12-05-09 10:30
Preview of TOPIC 2: Software & Hardware Components of an Information System (ICT AS OCR New Spec For First Teaching 2008)

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Hardware Software
These are physical components that This is programming code (Programs
make up a computer (Monitor, such as Word Processors and DTP
Peripherals etc.). They can be physically packages) that make the computer
touched. perform tasks.
Standardisation is defined as the imposition, by a third party, or with
agreement, of a set of standards on manufacturers.
W3E (World Wide Web Consortium) develop standard for the internet and ISO
(International Standards Organisation) decided how data should be recorded on to
Lack of standardisation leads to... Lack of S. within a company...
Increased costs No communication between
Lack of availability systems
Limited Technical support Miscommunication between
Web browsers being unable to systems
load pages the way in which New equipment would need to
designers intended them to be be purchased
viewed Staff training
Operating Systems also Possible lack of technical
illustrate problems of having support
different platforms ­
companies have to make
different versions of the same
program for different OS's
A piece of hardware that gets data from outside the computer system, into the
system. It translates the data into a form the computer can understand.
The choice of input method depends on:

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Cost Volume of data Accuracy
Used to enter small amounts of data due to lack of accuracy/human error.
*Ergonomic's are physically aligned to a more natural position reducing the chances
of Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI).
Easy to use
Concept's are customisable ­ good for restaurants as fast/efficient & can put any
option on
Slow method of entering data (especially for inexperienced users)
Can cause RSI
Used primarily in WIMP (Windows, Icon, Menu, Pointer) environments and v.…read more

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Can be hand held or fixed.
Needs to be typed if not recognised
Difficulties if system crashes
Training is required
Optical Mark Reader
Detects the position of marks placed on the paper. The position tells the computer
the selection made by the user.…read more

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Output devices are used to display the results of computer
processing to the user. The device converts the electronically
stored data/info in to a form the user can understand.
The larger the monitor the more suitable for DTP and CAD where the user can see
the output more clearly to see the overall layout of a diagram or page. The size of a
monitor is measured in pixels e.g. 1024 by 768.…read more

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Cheap to run, ink cartridges need only replacing but these can be expensive
Cartridges can often be refilled by companies such as Cartridge World making
Good quality output
Can produce high quality photo prints using photo paper
Slower printing speeds than laser
Ink can run when wet
Inks can fade over time if paper if left in direct sunlight
High quality, nonimpact that use similar process to
photocopier. Especially useful when high quality and
volumes of printing need to be done.…read more

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Produces accurate scaled drawings
Lines are smooth (no pixilation)
Can't produce photographic output
Slow print speeds as each line is drawn individually
Pen needs to be put to start of line each time
Storage devices are used to hold data and programmes.…read more

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Large storage capacity
Disk head can crash causing data to be lost
Optical Discs
Similar to CDs. They use a laser to detect pits in the metal foil sandwiched between
two clear plastic disks. Used by manufacturers to supply software to customers and
archive image files.
CDROM (Compact Disc ­ Read Only Memory) can store up to 700MB. Data is burnt
to disk at manufacture and can't be changed.
CDR (Recordable) are blank discs that can be written once only.…read more

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Sending output to a display screen or printer
Keeping track of data files stored on the hard disk (saving and
The user interface is the means by which a user can
interact with an application or operating system
Different types of user interface:
Menu (fig 1) On screen list of options from which to choose
Form (fig 2) Onscreen form which data is entered in to clearly labelled areas
Command Line A space to type in instructions
(fig 3)
Natural Voice based…read more

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Operating systems can also be termed as:
GUI (Graphic User Interfaces) An interface based on graphics rather
than text
WIMP (Windows Icon Menu Pointer) This is a particular type of GUI ­ not all
GUI's use windows, icons, menus etc
Utility Software
A Utility programme is a small programme that assists in
the monitoring and maintaining of the computer system.
Printer monitoring software
Virus Checkers
File compression (.…read more


Ibrahim - Team GR

Good content and covered in good detail. Could have added colour but its great for revision! Thanks!!

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