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Topic 2: Enzymes and The Digestive System

Topic 2.1 Enzymes and Digestion

Major Components of the digestive system
Responsible for movement of food from the mouth to
the stomach
Adapted for transport
Consists of a thick muscular wall
Muscular sac lined with a layer that secretes enzymes

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Topic 2: Enzymes and The Digestive System

Breaking down of components by physical movement, such as the churning in the stomach by muscles
movements, and chewing of food
Increases surface area
Chemical Digestion
Breaking down large molecules into much smaller molecules with the addition of water.
Hydrolysis ­ the function…

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Topic 2: Enzymes and The Digestive System

2.3 Carbohydrates ­ Disaccharides and Polysaccharides
Monosaccharides combine to form disaccharides as a result of condensation reactions, which form
glycosidic bonds.
The formation of polysaccharides is a result of multiple condensation reactions
Condensation reactions remove water molecules; to break down polysaccharides, hydrolysis adds…

Page 4

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Topic 2: Enzymes and The Digestive System

The epithelial lining of the small intestine secretes maltase, which is used for the hydrolysis of maltose
into -glucose.

Digestion ­ Disaccharides

Found contained in cells, which is physically
broken down by the teeth.
Epithelial lining produces sucrase which is used

Page 5

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Topic 2: Enzymes and The Digestive System

Hydrolysis breaks down the peptide bonds (similar to that of carbohydrates)

Primary Structure ­ Polypeptides

Amino acid monomers joined together from a number of condensation reactions (condensation
Formation of a polypeptide, which is the primary structure of a protein.
There is no…

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Topic 2: Enzymes and The Digestive System

Hydrogen bonds - these are found in high proportions to the other bonds, but these are the most easily
broken bonds.

Quaternary Structure

These are proteins that contain prosthetic (non-protein groups)
An example of a quaternary structure for a protein is haemoglobin, where…

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Topic 2: Enzymes and The Digestive System

One important limitation that was recognised was the fact that a lock (in this case, a substrate) is of a rigid
From the evidence given by scientists, it was observed that a substrate was able to place itself into an
area on…

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Topic 2: Enzymes and The Digestive System

Figure 2: Observation of Disappearance
The initial reading will be high, as the reaction will not have begun.
Will begin to plateau at lower points, as the reactant is being used (and converted into products)
As the reaction progresses, the reactant will be…

Page 9

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Topic 2: Enzymes and The Digestive System

When there is a low substrate concentration, there are empty active sites, and so the rate of reaction is not as
efficient as it can be, as the active sites are not being used to its full extent.

When the substrate concentration is…

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Topic 2: Enzymes and The Digestive System

Shivani BarotPage 10


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