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Topic 2: Cells
Cell Theory
2.1.1 (2) & 2.1.2 (3) outline the cell theory & Discuss the Evidence for Cell Theory
Living things are made of cells as shown by observations by microscopists who began in the 17th
Century. Light microscopy and electron microscopy show how especially in tissues and organs in
multicellular organisms, cells are the basic building blocks of life.
Cells are the smallest unit of life.…read more

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Magnification=Length of DrawingActual Length of Specimen
1. Take measurement of drawing/scale bar. (eg 41mm)
2. Convert units if required (answers must be left as whole integers)
3. Use equation to solve, (eg if mag =1000x, actual length =41/1000= 0.041nm = 41 m)
2.1.…read more

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Prokaryotic Cells
2.2.1(1) Draw & Label a diagram of the ultrastructure of Escherichia Coli (E.Coli) as an example of a
2.2.2(2) Annotate the diagram from 2.2.1 with the functions of each named structure
2.2.3(2) Identify Structures from 2.2.1 in Electron Micrographs of E.Coli
The Cell Surface Membrane controls the movement of
substances in & out of the cell.…read more

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Eukaryotic Cells
2.3.1 (1) Draw and Label a diagram of the ultrastructure of a liver cell as an example of an animal cell
2.3.2(2) annotate the diagram from 2.3.1 with the functions of each named structure
2.3.3. Identify structures from 2.3.1 in Electron micrographs of the liver cells
Nucleus: 10 m in size, and contains genetic material, acting as brain of the cell controlling and directing
cellular activities. It is enclosed by the nuclear envelope.…read more

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Cytoplasm: Contains enzymes involved in metabolic reactions and is mainly water with other ions and
substances present.…read more

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Outline two roles of extracellular components
Cell Wall:
Completely External to the cell
Consists of Cellulose and Muerin
Allows plant cell to develop high internal pressure so it can support its own weight
Found around animal cells
Gives the ability of cells to adhere to each other
Allows formation of compact tissues and organs
Play a part in the support and movement of cells
Page 7…read more

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2.4.1(1) Draw and Label a diagram to show the structure of a membrane
2.4.2(3) Explain how the hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties of phospholipids help to maintain the
structure of membranes.
Hydrophilic Head made from glycerol and phosphate
Hydrophobic Tail made from two fatty acids
The heads points outside the membrane and the tails form a lipid layer, resulting in the overall
structure of a phospholipid bilayer.…read more

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Channels for Transport of metabolites of water: channel proteins allow certain substances entry
and pump proteins use active transport to move substances
3. Enzymes held in membrane: catalyse reactions at surface, within or outside cell
4. Act as binding sites: for proteins(glycoproteins) for attachment to hormones and antigen-antibody
5. Cell-Cell Recognition: Adhesion of cells and binding of cell tissues d
6. Receptor sites for chemical signals
2.4.…read more

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Vesicles also transfer the material and fuse to the plasma membrane, where the proteins are
expelled in a process known as exocytosis, before the membrane returns to its orginal state.
4. Vesicles are used in endocytosis, such as the uptake of solid particles (phagocytosis) and liquid
2.4.8(3) Describe how the fluidity of the membrane allows it to change shape, break and reform during
endocytosis and exocytosis.
See Notes on the fluidity of the membrane and parts 3-4 above
Cell Division
2.5.…read more


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