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Topic 2: Cells


Cell Theory

2.1.1 (2) & 2.1.2 (3) outline the cell theory & Discuss the Evidence for Cell Theory

Living things are made of cells as shown by observations by microscopists who began in the 17th
Century. Light microscopy and electron microscopy show how especially in tissues and…

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Magnification=Length of DrawingActual Length of Specimen



1. Take measurement of drawing/scale bar. (eg 41mm)
2. Convert units if required (answers must be left as whole integers)
3. Use equation to solve, (eg if mag =1000x, actual length =41/1000= 0.041nm = 41 m)



2.1.6 (3) Explain the importance of the surface…

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Prokaryotic Cells

2.2.1(1) Draw & Label a diagram of the ultrastructure of Escherichia Coli (E.Coli) as an example of a
prokaryote

2.2.2(2) Annotate the diagram from 2.2.1 with the functions of each named structure

2.2.3(2) Identify Structures from 2.2.1 in Electron Micrographs of E.Coli

The Cell Surface Membrane controls the…

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Eukaryotic Cells
2.3.1 (1) Draw and Label a diagram of the ultrastructure of a liver cell as an example of an animal cell

2.3.2(2) annotate the diagram from 2.3.1 with the functions of each named structure

2.3.3. Identify structures from 2.3.1 in Electron micrographs of the liver cells




Nucleus: 10…

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Cytoplasm: Contains enzymes involved in metabolic reactions and is mainly water with other ions and
substances present. It is also the site of glycolysis

Mitochondrion: Cigar shaped organelles , 1-2 m long and are involved in producing ATP by aerobic
metabolism
Ribosomes: 20nm and are the binding site for amino…

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2.3.6(2) Outline two roles of extracellular components

Cell Wall:
Completely External to the cell
Consists of Cellulose and Muerin
Allows plant cell to develop high internal pressure so it can support its own weight

Glycoproteins:
Found around animal cells
Gives the ability of cells to adhere to each other
Allows…

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Membranes
2.4.1(1) Draw and Label a diagram to show the structure of a membrane




2.4.2(3) Explain how the hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties of phospholipids help to maintain the
structure of membranes.

Hydrophilic Head made from glycerol and phosphate
Hydrophobic Tail made from two fatty acids
The heads points outside the…

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2. Channels for Transport of metabolites of water: channel proteins allow certain substances entry
and pump proteins use active transport to move substances
3. Enzymes held in membrane: catalyse reactions at surface, within or outside cell
4. Act as binding sites: for proteins(glycoproteins) for attachment to hormones and antigen-antibody
reactions…

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3. Vesicles also transfer the material and fuse to the plasma membrane, where the proteins are
expelled in a process known as exocytosis, before the membrane returns to its orginal state.
4. Vesicles are used in endocytosis, such as the uptake of solid particles (phagocytosis) and liquid
(pinocytosis)

2.4.8(3) Describe…

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