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Ethnicity And Criminalisation Statistics
Victim surveys show that most crime is inter-racial, 90% of crime where the victim was
white so was the offender
Graham & Bowling: Self report studies found that, blacks 44%, whites 44% had similar
rates of offending
Under the Terrorism Act 2000, Asians were 3x more likely to be stopped
Phillips & Bowling: Police often hold negative stereotypes about offenders
In 2006/7 in England & Wales, blacks were 3.6x more likely to be arrested
In 2006/7, 60% of white defendants were found guilty compared to 52% blacks and 44%
Hood: Black men are 5% more likely to receive a custodial sentence for an average
three months longer
In 2007, 15% black and 7% Asian made up the prison population
Blacks are 5x more likely to go to prison…read more

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Explaining The Differences In Offending: Left
Realism, Lea & Young
Ethnic differences reflect a real problem in the levels of offending
Racism has lead groups to be marginalized and economic exclusion
The medias emphasis on consumerism promotes a sense of relative deprivation
One response is to form delinquent subcultures which produces high levels of utilitarian
Being a marginalised group, they have nobody to represent their interest
Their frustration is liable to produce non-utilitarian crime…read more

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Evaluation Of Left Realism
Use of subcultures I supported by Cloward & Ohlin
Covers a range of crimes
Idea of status frustration is supported by Cohen
Socially sensitive
Ignores the fact the police could be racist
The Terrorism act saw the rise of Asians being searched
Could be victims of labelling
Bowling: `Over looks the evidence that modern racism has constructed different images
of ethnic groups'
Can lead to selective enforcement
Doesn't account for differences in EM crime rates
Macrosocial study so lacks individual motives
In terms of conviction, statistics suggest that many EM were falsely accused…read more

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Explaining The Differences In Offending: Neo-
Marxism, Gilroy
Idea of black criminality is a myth created by racist stereotypes
The police then act on these stereotypes and EMGs come to be criminalised
EM crime can be seen as a form of political resistance against a racists society
Most blacks and Asians originate din the former British colonies, their anti-imperialist
struggles taught them how to resist oppression
They adopted the same forms of struggle to defend themselves but their political
struggle was criminalised by the British state…read more

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Evaluation Of Gilroy
Basic principle is similar to Left Realism, in that crime is a reaction to society
Roberts: African Caribbean's are more likely to be labelled than whites
First generation immigrants were very law-abiding, it's unlikely they passed down a
tradition of anti-colonial struggle
Most crime is intra-ethic
Romanticise street crime as somewhat revolutionary
Asian crime rates are similar to or lower than whites, If Gilroy was right the police should
only be racist towards blacks not Asians…read more

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