Topic 4 notes

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  • Created on: 25-04-16 16:43
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Adaptation and evolution
A niche is a role of specie within a habitat. A niche a specie occupies within a
habitat includes its interactions with other living organisms, and its interactions
with the non-living environment. Every specie has a unique niche, and a niche can
only be occupied by one specie, there is always a slight difference between the
There are three ways to which an organism can be adapted to their niche:
Behavioural adaptations Ways an organism acts that increases its chances of
survival and reproduction.
Physiological adaptations Processes inside an organism that increases its
change of survival
Anatomical adaptations Structural features of an organism's body that
increase its change of survival
Useful adaptations become more common within a population of species because
of evolution by natural selection. Individuals within a population show variation in
their phenotype, predation, disease and competition create a struggle for survival,
so individuals with better adaptations will perform better and are more likely to
survive. This is an outline of Charles Darwin's theory of evolution by natural
selection. An example is the peppered moths, which showed a variation in colour,
light and dark, with due to industrial revolution the populations of each varied.
Taxonomy is the science of classification. It
involves naming, and organising organisms
into groups based on their similarities and
differences. There are seven levels of groups
involved in taxonomy, they are called
taxonomic groups. Organisms are first sorted
into kingdoms, and then it starts to break
down into more subsections. As you go down
there are more groups but fewer organisms
in each group.
It ends with specie, which is where there is
only one organism in it. Specie can be defined
as: A group of similar organisms able to
reproduce to give off fertile offspring.

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All species are given a unique scientific name, in latin, it is binominal word, first
with the genus and second with the specie.
There are five kingdoms, these are based on general features.…read more

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Plant cell structure and plant stems
Organelle Description Function
Cell wall A rigid structure that Supports plant cells
surrounds plant cells.…read more

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The water and mineral ions particularly around the outer
move in and out of the vessel via edges.
pits where there is no lignin
Water is transported through xylem vessels through diffusion gradients. When
water evaporates away it is called transpiration. The stream of water passing
through a plant is called the transpiration stream. The water movement through
the xylem provides a mass flow system for the transport of inorganic ions.…read more

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Such as planting a tree after logging is an example of sustainable
Plant fibres and starch can be used to control sustainability. Plant fibres can be
used to make rope, and fabrics. These used to be made from oil which is not a
renewable source. Plant fibres are renewable due to them being able to be planted
and re-grown, this will maintain supply.…read more

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William withering digitalis soup, he discovered that
extracts from foxgloves could be used to treat dropsy. Withering made a chance
observation, a patient suffering with dropsy made a good recovery after being
treated with it, he knew foxgloves were poisonous so he used patients to find out
the correct concentration of it.
Nowadays drug protocols are a lot more strict and controlled. Before using it on
any live subjects computers are used to look for any side effects .…read more

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Biodiversity is the variety of all living organisms in an area. It includes species
diversity (the number of different species, and abundance of each species in a
area) and genetic diversity (the variety of alleles within a specie). Conservation is
needed to help maintain biodiversity. Endemism is when an specie is unique to a
single place, such as the giant tortoise.
Species diversity can be measured, and compared to different habitats.…read more

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Less labour is required to look It would be to expensive to store
after seeds. all types of seed and regularly
Seeds can be stored anywhere as test them all
long as it is cool and dry It may be difficult to collect seeds
Seeds are less likely to be from some plants, as some
damaged by disease naturally grow remotely.
Zoos have captive breeding programs to help endangered species. These are in
controlled environments.…read more

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