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Adaptation and evolution

A niche is a role of specie within a habitat. A niche a specie occupies within a
habitat includes its interactions with other living organisms, and its interactions
with the non-living environment. Every specie has a unique niche, and a niche can
only be occupied by one…

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All species are given a unique scientific name, in latin, it is binominal word, first
with the genus and second with the specie.

There are five kingdoms, these are based on general features.

Kingdom Example Features
Prokaryoate Bacteria Prokaryotes, Unicellular, no
nucleus, less than 5um
Protoctisa Alga, protozoa Eukaryotic cells,…

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Plant cell structure and plant stems

Organelle Description Function
Cell wall A rigid structure that Supports plant cells
surrounds plant cells.
Made mainly of cellulose
Middle Lamella The outermost layer of This layer acts as an adhesive
cells sticking adjacent plant cells
Plasmodesmat Channels in the cell wall Allow…

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The water and mineral ions particularly around the outer
move in and out of the vessel via edges.
pits where there is no lignin

Water is transported through xylem vessels through diffusion gradients. When
water evaporates away it is called transpiration. The stream of water passing
through a plant is…

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running out. Such as planting a tree after logging is an example of sustainable

Plant fibres and starch can be used to control sustainability. Plant fibres can be
used to make rope, and fabrics. These used to be made from oil which is not a
renewable source. Plant fibres…

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past, experiments such as William withering digitalis soup, he discovered that
extracts from foxgloves could be used to treat dropsy. Withering made a chance
observation, a patient suffering with dropsy made a good recovery after being
treated with it, he knew foxgloves were poisonous so he used patients to find…

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Biodiversity is the variety of all living organisms in an area. It includes species
diversity (the number of different species, and abundance of each species in a
area) and genetic diversity (the variety of alleles within a specie). Conservation is
needed to help maintain biodiversity. Endemism is when an specie…

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Less labour is required to look It would be to expensive to store
after seeds. all types of seed and regularly
Seeds can be stored anywhere as test them all
long as it is cool and dry It may be difficult to collect seeds
Seeds are less likely to be…

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speak to me

tony farag


love me, father



awesome notes thank u sooo much 

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