To what extent was Stalin’s control of the party machine the most significant factor in achieving absolute power in Russia by 1929?


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Chapter 7 and 8- protection against disease and the immune
Health is not the absence of disease, health is a state of mental, physical and
social well being.
DISEASE can be caused by 3 main things
1. Pathogens - this is a disease causing organism that damage the host it
infects, they are micro-organisms (some bacteria and fungi and ALL virus) but
can include some larger organisms such as tape worm.
2. Life styles - this can effect your risk of developing some diseases. EG.
CORONARY HEART DISEASE - (CHD) effects the heart. High diet of saturated
fats or salts, lack of exercise , smoking, excessive alcohol intake and obesity
ALL increase the risk of developing CDH. CANCER - result of uncontrolled cell
division, risk factors include smoking, over exposure to sunlight, alcohol intake
ECT depending on what type of cancer you have.
3. Othere factors - disease caused by genetic defects, nutritional deficiency,
environmental factors.
Betterment of your life style doesn't mean that you will never develop disease,
but it would reduce the risk. EG risk of lung cancer can be reduced if smoker
would stop smoking.
Pathogens cause disease by PRODUCING TOXINS and DAMAGING CELLS, if a
pathogen is successful in entering the cell, it causes disease in 2 ways.
Production of toxins Cell damage
· When bacteria infect a cell many of
them release toxins - harmful
· EG. Tetanus process a toxin that
blocks the function of certain nerve
cells thus causing muscle spasms.
· Cholera produces toxins that upset
the exchange of substances in cells
· Rupturing them 2 release nutrients -EG. proteins - inside them.
· Breaking down nutrients inside them for their own use EG, replication thus
starving the cell
· Replicating inside the cell, them
bursting the cell on release- some virus
do this.
CHOLERA TOXINS effect the exchange of chloride ions in the small intestine
The toxin causes chloride ion protein channels within the epithelial cell
membranes to open.
Chloride ions (Cl-)then move into the small intestine lumen. Sodium ions
(Na+)follow a electro gradient, so they also build up in the lumen and cannot
enter the intestinal cells.
This build up makes contents of lumen more negative and lowers the water

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Water move out of blood and across the epithelial cell to get to the intestine
lumen by osmosis to balance the concentration
The mass increase of water in the lumen cause diarrhoea, thus causing the
body to become extremely dehydrated and the person may die
Antibiotics can help clear the bacteria but cells need plenty of water to carry
out their chemical reactions.2
ORAL REHYDRATION SOLUTIONS (ORS) are used to treat disease that cause
diarrhoea.…read more

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Genetic material in bacteria is the same as in any other organism - it DNA
DNA of organisms contain the genes that carry the instructions that code for
different proteins, these proteins determine the characteristics
MUTATIONS happen when the base sequences of the DNA changes, when this
happens the codes change, so do the proteins thus changing the
Mutations in a bacteria may lead to antibiotic resistance.…read more

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Adaptation increasing chances of How the adaptation increases
survival survival
· Streamlined body, camouflaged,
larger paws for running quicker
· Streamlined body, camouflaged,
larger paws for running quicker
Larger claws, longer neck ECT.
· Shorter/longer hairs, large ears,
increased water storage capacity
· This helps them escape from predators
· This helps them catch food/ their prey
· This makes the animal more
suited to their climate
Bacteria are treated using antibiotics, so increased resistance makes it them
harder to treat EG.…read more

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Describe the data ­ the data shows the number of deaths involving all
forms of staphylococcus aureus increased between 1993 and 2005.the data
shows that whilst MRSA became more common, SA stayed relatively level.
2. check the evidence to back up any conclusions ­ check what the data is
supposed to show word for word.…read more

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GAS-EXCHANGE SYSTEM ­ most the pathogens breathed in will be trapped
in the mucus lining of the lung epithelium(outer layers in passages to lungs) these
also have cilia cells for extra protection; these sweep the mucus up the trachea
adnare coughed up. But some pathogens are still able to get through the alveoli
where they invade cell and cause a infection.
The skin and the mucu8s membranes are PRIMARY defenses that prevent
pathogens from entering it.…read more


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