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Chapter 7 and 8- protection against disease and the immune

Health is not the absence of disease, health is a state of mental, physical and
social well being.

DISEASE can be caused by 3 main things

1. Pathogens - this is a disease causing organism that damage the host…

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potential (ability of water to move) in the lumen.
Water move out of blood and across the epithelial cell to get to the intestine
lumen by osmosis to balance the concentration
The mass increase of water in the lumen cause diarrhoea, thus causing the
body to become extremely dehydrated and…

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Genetic material in bacteria is the same as in any other organism - it DNA
DNA of organisms contain the genes that carry the instructions that code for
different proteins, these proteins determine the characteristics
MUTATIONS happen when the base sequences of the DNA changes, when this
happens the codes…

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Adaptation increasing chances of How the adaptation increases
survival survival

· Streamlined body, camouflaged,
larger paws for running quicker
· Streamlined body, camouflaged,
larger paws for running quicker
Larger claws, longer neck ECT.
· Shorter/longer hairs, large ears,
increased water storage capacity
· This helps them escape from predators…

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staphylococcus aureus.

1. Describe the data ­ the data shows the number of deaths involving all
forms of staphylococcus aureus increased between 1993 and 2005.the data
shows that whilst MRSA became more common, SA stayed relatively level.
2. check the evidence to back up any conclusions ­ check what the…

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3. GAS-EXCHANGE SYSTEM ­ most the pathogens breathed in will be trapped
in the mucus lining of the lung epithelium(outer layers in passages to lungs) these
also have cilia cells for extra protection; these sweep the mucus up the trachea
adnare coughed up. But some pathogens are still able to…


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