Timeline of History A Unit 1: Peace and War 1900-1939

this really helped me cross link and revise for my year 10 exam:I stuck in my wall, and kept scanning it.

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1882 ­ The Triple Alliance is signed - Italy joined the Dual Alliance of Austria ­ Hungary and Germany. Bismark made this agreement, to stop the French gaining allies and to
prevent future attack.
1887 ­ Bismark signs an alliance with Russia but Wilhelm later dismissed Bismark and failed renew the agreement with Russia.
1893 ­ Russia turned to France and they signed the Dual Entente, giving France an ally.
1904- The Entente Cordaile is signed ­ Britain was concerned about Germany's rising powers and ambitions and after secret discussions with France, signed the Entente
Cordaile. This was, a friendly understanding that they would not quarrel over colonies.
1905- The Moroccan crisis ­ Kaiser Wilhelm tested the agreement by saying he supported the independence of Morocco. The French were furious but won British support in
conference in Algeciras. Wilhelm, ironically brought them closer together.
1906 ­ Launch of the first dreadnought ­ An arms race between Britain and Germany developed because of Britain's fear of the German threat. HMS Dreadnought made all
previous battleships out of date. By 1914, Britain had built 29 and Germany 17.
1907- The Triple Entente- Britain and Russia reached an agreement; the Entente Cordaile became the Triple Entente. Europe is now divided into two power blocks.
1908 ­ The `Young Turk' uprising overthrew the Sultan, placing his brother on the throne; they began to reform Turkey causing alarm in Austria ­ Hungary. Fearing the Turks
might recover Bosnia ­ Herzegovina. In September, AH had annexed BH. Tensions were then high, but at this time no one was prepared to intervene.
1911 - The Agadir Crisis ­ a rebellion in Morocco against the Sultan was put down by France who took control of the country. Wilhelm was furious and sent a gunboat to Agadir
but Britain's powerful navy supported France, once again. Germany backed down and is made to look foolish, in the eyes of the world. Tension between the great powers was
1911 ­ The `Young Turks' fell from power and the Balkan states seized the opportunity to attack the Ottomans in 1912. In three weeks, the Balkan League had almost
pushed the Ottomans out of Europe. This worried Austria ­ Hungary who persuaded the Great Powers to sign a peace treaty, and ended the first Balkan War. Within a month, a
second war began but now the Balkan States now argued over the gains won in the first war. Results of the wars: a) Ottoman's European possessions gone. b) Greece,
Romania and Serbia ­ new territories won from Bulgaria. c) Serbia the most powerful and most dissatisfied Balkan country. It had captured part of the Adriatic coastline but AH
insisted the territory was taken from them.
1914 - The Assassination at Sarajevo ­ The heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, Archduke Franz Ferdinand was shot by Gavillo Princip, a member of the Serbian Black Hand.
This was the trigger to the first world war and due to the alliance system world war breaks out.
1918 ­ Armistice and end of war. The armistice was signed because the Germany had no choice, they had no supplies for their soldiers, there was mutiny in the ranks and
their allies had left them. They had to withdraw all troops, move their navy into allied ports and disarm. The armistice was signed on the 11th November at 11.00.
1919 ­ a) The Treaty of Versailles is signed ­ the terms were so severe that, the German chancellor resigned. There was no alternative ­ the allies controlled Europe.
Germany lost all its overseas colonies and many territories in Europe. Anschluss was forbidden. There were harsh restrictions on the military. Germany had to take sole blame for
the war; they also had to pay crippling reparations. b) The Treaty of St.Germain, Austria agreed to the break up of the Habsburg Empire, losing Hungary, Poland,

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Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia. They also lost land to Italy. Army restricted to 30,000. c) Treaty of Neuilly, Bulgaria lost land to Yugoslavia and Greece but gained some from
Turkey. Army limited to 20,000
1919 ­ The League of Nations is formed to keep the peace but it didn't impose limits on the military, as it did to Germany even though it followed a policy of disarmament.
1920 ­ a) The treaty of Trianon is signed.…read more

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­ Hitler comes to power in Germany - In January 1933 Hitler became chancellor of Germany and by August 1934, he had declared himself Führer - the leader of
1935 ­ The Italian invasion of Abyssinia -In 1935, Italy invaded Abyssinia. Although the Abyssinian emperor Haile Selassie went to the League himself to ask for help, all the
League did was to ban arms sales, which did Abyssinia more harm than Italy. A League commission offered Italy part of Abyssinia, but Italy invaded anyway.…read more

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