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Things to remember (Unit 4):
Denitrification Anaerobic. Converts Nitrates to Nitrogen Gas.
Nitrification Oxidation Reaction, Aerobic. Changes Ammonium ions in to Nitrite ions and then
Ammonification Fungi and Bacteria feed on Ammonium containing compounds to release
Ammonia, which becomes Ammonium ions.
Nitrogen-Fixing bacteria live in root nodules and the soil.
o Root Nodules Convert Nitrogen Gas into Amino Acids for Plants.
o Soil Convert Nitrogen gas into Ammonium ions.
Eutrophication Build-up of nutrients in bodies of water.
Intraspecific Individuals belonging to the SAME species competing for resources.
Interspecific Individuals belonging to DIFFERENT species competing for resources.
As sunlight falls on the plant only some wavelengths are absorbed, others are transmitted or
reflected. They are absorbed by 2 Photosystems (a pigment with a protein).
o PS1 700nm wavelength
o PS2 680nm wavelength
Equation: 6CO2 + 6H2O -> C6H12O6 + 6O2
2 Stages Light-Dependent Reaction, Light-Independent Reaction (That Order).
o Takes place in Thylakoids.
o Light is absorbed to be converted to chemical energy in the photosystems.
o The light energy is used to add a phosphate to ADP and make ATP. It also reduces
NADP to NADPH.
o ATP transfers energy to LIR, NADPH transfers hydrogen to LIR.
o H2O is oxidised in the LDR to O2.
o Also known as The Calvin Cycle
o Relies on the products of the LDR
o Takes place in the Stroma
o The NADPH and ATP act on 2 x 3C molecules to change it into 2 xTP. A TP loses a C
and turns them into a single RuBP. RuBP gains a C and becomes the original 2 x 3C
o Calvin Cycle must turn 6 times to create 1 molecule of Glucose.
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4 Stages Glycolysis, Link Reaction, Kreb's Cycle, Oxidative Phosphorylation. (That order)
Glycolysis is the only stage in anaerobic respiration. Ethanol is produced in plants and fungi,
Lactic Acid is produced in an animals.…read more
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Used to estimate abundance of a species.
Equation Total Size = (# caught in 1st sample x # caught in 2nd sample) / # marked in 2nd
Accuracy depends on time between readings, marking effecting the chance of survival and
change in population size.
Biomass Measure of the amount of energy in a trophic level, based on the mass of an
organism in an ecosystem.
Community All the different organisms living and interacting in a particular habitat.…read more