Things to Remember (Unit 4)

This is a list of things to remember for the Unit 4 exam I made for myself.

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Things to remember (Unit 4):
Nitrogen Cycle:
Denitrification ­ Anaerobic. Converts Nitrates to Nitrogen Gas.
Nitrification ­ Oxidation Reaction, Aerobic. Changes Ammonium ions in to Nitrite ions and then
Nitrate ions.
Ammonification ­ Fungi and Bacteria feed on Ammonium containing compounds to release
Ammonia, which becomes Ammonium ions.
Nitrogen-Fixing bacteria live in root nodules and the soil.
o Root Nodules ­ Convert Nitrogen Gas into Amino Acids for Plants.
o Soil ­ Convert Nitrogen gas into Ammonium ions.
Eutrophication ­ Build-up of nutrients in bodies of water.
Intraspecific ­ Individuals belonging to the SAME species competing for resources.
Interspecific ­ Individuals belonging to DIFFERENT species competing for resources.
As sunlight falls on the plant only some wavelengths are absorbed, others are transmitted or
reflected. They are absorbed by 2 Photosystems (a pigment with a protein).
o PS1 ­ 700nm wavelength
o PS2 ­ 680nm wavelength
Equation: 6CO2 + 6H2O -> C6H12O6 + 6O2
2 Stages ­ Light-Dependent Reaction, Light-Independent Reaction (That Order).
o Takes place in Thylakoids.
o Light is absorbed to be converted to chemical energy in the photosystems.
o The light energy is used to add a phosphate to ADP and make ATP. It also reduces
o ATP transfers energy to LIR, NADPH transfers hydrogen to LIR.
o H2O is oxidised in the LDR to O2.
o Also known as The Calvin Cycle
o Relies on the products of the LDR
o Takes place in the Stroma
o The NADPH and ATP act on 2 x 3C molecules to change it into 2 xTP. A TP loses a C
and turns them into a single RuBP. RuBP gains a C and becomes the original 2 x 3C
o Calvin Cycle must turn 6 times to create 1 molecule of Glucose.

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4 Stages ­ Glycolysis, Link Reaction, Kreb's Cycle, Oxidative Phosphorylation. (That order)
Glycolysis is the only stage in anaerobic respiration. Ethanol is produced in plants and fungi,
Lactic Acid is produced in an animals.…read more

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Mark-Release-Recapture Method:
Used to estimate abundance of a species.
Equation Total Size = (# caught in 1st sample x # caught in 2nd sample) / # marked in 2nd
Accuracy depends on time between readings, marking effecting the chance of survival and
change in population size.
Biomass ­ Measure of the amount of energy in a trophic level, based on the mass of an
organism in an ecosystem.
Community ­ All the different organisms living and interacting in a particular habitat.…read more



These are great summarised notes! Helped me out a lot, thanks!

Marta Kohls

Excellent summary. Thanks. 

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