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The UN defines victims as those who have suffered harm through acts or omissions that
violate the laws of the state

Christie (1986)
`Victim' is socially constructed
The stereotype of the `ideal victim' favoured by the media, public and criminal justice
system is a weak, innocent…

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Brookman (2005)
-Wolfgang shows the importance of the victim-offender relationship
-In many homicides, it is a matter of chance which party becomes the victim
This approach identifies certain patterns of interpersonal victimisation
- BUT it ignores wider structural factors influencing victimisation, such as poverty and
It can easily tip…

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Critical victimology disregards the role victims may play in bringing victimisation on
themselves through their own choices or their own offending
It is valuable in drawing attention the way that `victim' status is constructed by power and
how this benefits the powerful at the expense of the powerless


Page 4

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Crime may have a serious physical and emotional impacts on its victims
Crime may also create `indirect' victims, such as friends, relatives and crime
Hate crimes against minorities may create `waves of harm' that radiate out to affect others
Secondary Victimisation

The idea that in addition to the…


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