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1776 ­ the colonies declared their independence from the UK
1776 ­ 83 ­ there followed war of independence between the colonies and UK
1781 ­ the newly independent colonies established a confederacy by the
Articles of confederation
1787 ­ the confederacy proved to be a disaster…

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o During Bush's presidency there were six further attempts to amend the
constitution, but only three of these got the majority vote
o 27 out of 33 amendments have been ratified

The bill of Rights and later amendments
o Of the 27 amendments, the first ten were proposed together by…

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o The constitution draw up at the Philadelphia convention in 1787 divided
the national government into three branches
o The Founding Fathers wanted to avoid tyranny
o They wanted the branches to be independent yet coequal, check the
power of others, have limited government, be separate in terms of

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In 2005 Senators forced Harriet Miers to withdraw as a nominee to the
Supreme Court
7) Congress may investigate actions and policies of the executive
Congress investigated Bush's handling of security issues before and after
8) Congress may impeach any member of the executive
Bill Clinton was impeached in…

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o Congress has only overridden a veto of its own party twice in the last 50

Federalism and the constitution
o Involves a degree of centralisation
o The compromise between a strong central government and a state's
o The words `federal'/'federalism' are not mentioned in the constitution,…

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Brought the need for government regulation
Federal executive departments for commerce/labour formed in 1903

While the nation grew in size, it shrunk in terms of accessibility and
modern methods of communication developed
Journeys improved and became quicker as roads, railways, and aircrafts
Radio and television brought…

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o Federal and state government had distinct areas of responsibility which
was called `layercake' federalism

Cooperative federalism
o The era in which the federal and state governments cooperated to solve
the problems facing US society from the 1930s ­ 1960s poverty, health
o Associated with four Democratic presidents Franklin Roosevelt,…

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o Criticised for not vetoing expensive federal government programmes and
he failed to use a single veto during his entire first term
o Criticised for poor planning and inefficient coordination for Hurricane
Katrina in 2005
o Criticised in 2008 when Bush authorised Secretary of Treasury Henry
Paulson to take control…

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o Arizona has experimented with online voting and Montana entirely with a
postal ballot
o Political parties are decentralised and largely state based
o Texas democrats are more conservative than Massachusetts democrats

o Huge federal grants go to states
o Complex tax system income is by federal states and…




really good notes thankyou :)

Do you have any for Congress, Presidency and Supreme Court?

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