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The Shapes of Molecules and Ions...

The Electron Pair Repulsion Theory...

We can predict the shape of a simple covalent molecule consisting of a central
atom, and a number of other atoms using the ideas that:

Each pair of electrons around the atom will repel all other electron
pairs...
The…

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Two pairs of electrons...

If there are two pairs of electrons around the atom, the molecule will be
linear. The furthest away the atoms can get from one another is 180° apart.







Three pairs of electrons...

If there are three pairs of electrons around the central atom, they will be…

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Five pairs of electrons...

If there are four pairs of electrons the shape is a trigonal bipyramid with bond
angles of 120°.







Six pairs of electrons...

If there are six pairs of electrons the shape is an octahedral, and the bond
angles are 90°.










Ammonia







Ammonia has four pairs of…

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Repulsion between lone pair of electrons, is greater than the repulsion
between shared electrons.
The thumb rule is 2° per lone pair.

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