The Roman Army

Just the notes I typed up for my Latin background revision last year in Year 10 and then added to for my mocks... Probs missed off a couple of facts but this is mainly what you need to know. Feel free to look through-hope it helps and saves you having to look on loads of websites/lots of textbooks :/ Comment if you find it useful please :)

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Structure of a Legion
-6000 men at full strength
-Divided into 10 cohorts each made up of 480 men
-1st cohort has 800 men however
-6 centuries in each cohort, which had 80 men each, but only 5 in the first cohort, which had 160 men
-Centuries divided into…

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Imaginifier-carries a picture of Emperor
Immunes-exempt from latrine duties etc as they came from a medical/musical background and had
served for a long time in the army or had a special job to do
Milites-normal legionary soldiers known as miles gregarious as the soldiers lived and fought close
Together like…

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-Same rate of pay in war and peacetime
-Fairly well paid and often managed to save money to send home -1st C AD-225 denarii per annum
-Spent money on beer, gambling r paying a scribe to write letters for them
-Imperator Domitian improved rate to 300 denarii per annum-defying…

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Roman Artillery

There are two types: stone throwing (ballista) and arrow shooting (catapulta)
-Single armed stone thrower (onager) originated later
-Machines resembled outside crossbows except their power was supplied by springs of
twisted sinew
-Size varied from small arrow shooters to machines able to throw 45 kilo stones

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-Specialised soldiers who had developed particular skills e.g. archery/slinging
-Provided by men from different parts of the Empire that were allied with/conquered by Rome
-Paid less than legionary soldiers but were granted Roman citizenship at the end of their service-25
-Sons then automatically got Roman citizenship and often also…

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-Opposite the principia
-Purpose was where the commander and his officers worked, where interviews with important
locals were made and where military law courts were held
- Large hall, very impressively built
-Layout like interior of cathedral-nave bounded by columns supporting a vaulted roof and with two
-First sight…

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1st and 2nd Names Tribal Name
A-Aulus P-Publius Ter-Teretina
C-Caecilius Q-Quintus Pap-Papiria
Cn-Gnaeus S-Spurius Pol-Pollia
G-Gaius Sex-Sextus 32 other tribes
H-Haterius T-Titus
I-Iulius Ti-Tiberius
L-Lucius V-Valerius


BEN-beneficarius F-Filius
CENTURIO-centurion Dom-dominus
EQUES-Knight/cavalry LIB-libertus
Mil-milites (soldier) PAT-patronus
OPT-=optio PAR-parentes
SIG-signifier PAT-pater
TESS-tesserarius Sacerdos Deae Sulis- the priest of the goddess…

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terry krigas


Very useful as a background resource in Roman History and Roman Daily Life

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