The Restless Earth Q1

This is a revision guide based on OUP Press textbook and case studies

HideShow resource information
Preview of The Restless Earth Q1

First 118 words of the document:

Question 1: The Restless Earth Paper 1
Inner Core
Solid Iron and Nickel- over
Outer Core
Liquid Iron and Nickel
Molten rock- moving 1800- 3500
Crust - Thinnest layer
Plate Boundaries
Examples of Plate Margins
Destructive Nazca Plate and South American Plates
Conservative North American and Pacific Plates
Constructive South American and Atlantic Plates
Types of Crust
Oceanic Continental
Newer ­ most are less than 200 million years Older ­ most are over 1500 million years old
Can be renewed forming new crust and Cannot be renewed or destroyed
Denser Less dense
Can sink Cannot sink

Other pages in this set

Page 2

Preview of page 2

Here's a taster:

Destructive Plate Margins
Convection currents in the mantle cause plates to move together. If one plate is made
from oceanic crust and the other from continental crust , the denser oceanic crust
sinks under the lighter continental crust in a process known as subduction . Great
pressure is exerted and the oceanic crust is destroyed as it melts due to friction to form
Key Words
Subduction:the sinking of oceanic crust at a destructive margin.
Collision:the meeting of two plates of continental crust.…read more

Page 3

Preview of page 3

Page 4

Preview of page 4

Here's a taster:

Young fold mountains
Rivers flow sediment into the oceans between plates
Sediment forms layers on the ocean floor.
The Plates push together causing the sediment to be compressed. Rivers continue
to add more sediment.
Sediments forms rocks that begin to fold upwards.
This creates Young fold mountains.
How do people use an area of Fold mountains?
The Himalayas.
Nepal, Asia.
Home to 29 million people. On the Border between India and China. Home of Mount
Problems experienced in Fold Mountain areas.…read more

Page 5

Preview of page 5

Here's a taster:

Solutions- Hydroelectric power
Only 30% of Nepal has electricity. HEP enables Nepal to dam off rivers in mountainous
areas to provide sustainable energy to help develop the area.
Solutions - Farming
76% of Nepalese are farmers. The steep relief makes rice farming difficult, so slopes are
terraced to make the growing of crops easier.
Farmers are mainly subsistence farmers and rely on growing crops for their own families
to survive.
Crops are mixed with goats and cattle due to poor soils.…read more

Page 6

Preview of page 6

Here's a taster:

Distribution of Volcanoes
Volcanoes are an example of a
natural hazard . Their spread
relates closely to plate margins.
The area around the Pacific Ocean is
especially prone to volcanoes and is
known as `the Pacific Ring of Fire'.
Occasionally active volcanoes are
found away from plate margins at
Hot spots.
Case Study of a Volcanic Eruption
Soufriere Hills, Montserrat, 1997
Effects of the eruption
Pyroclastic flow surprised and killed 19 people in a 500 degree burning firestorm.
Half of Montserrat became uninhabitable.…read more

Page 7

Preview of page 7

Here's a taster:

Scientists will use tilt meters to measure the shape of the volcano and to detect
Measuring sulphur dioxide emissions enables scientists to detect a build up of gas
prior to an eruption.
Using seismographs means that they can detect tremors that could signify an
eruption is imminent.
What is a supervolcano?
Size Shape
A supervolcano is a mega volcano that Have large depressions called Calderas
erupts at least 1,000km³ of material.…read more

Page 8

Preview of page 8

Here's a taster:

Growing crops
would become difficult too.
Worldwide travel would cease and day would be turned to night. It would alter the
climate and make everywhere much colder. Up to 15 degree drop in global
The ash would stay in the atmosphere for up to 6 years and worldwide trade would
be affected too.
Sunlight would be blocked out leading to loss of crops, hunger, famine and
enormous loss of life. Up to 1 billion people would die.…read more

Page 9

Preview of page 9

Here's a taster:

Haiti is in the Caribbean Chile is in South America.
Ranked 143rd for GDP. Ranked 46th for GDP.
Very poor- hit 12 Jan 2010 by a 7.0 Rich - hit 27 February 2010 by a 8.8
earthquake. Earthquake
Primary effects
Haiti - Poorer Country Chile - A richer Country
220,00 killed, 300,000 injured. 500 killed, 12,000 injured.
Main Port (Port au Prince) was destroyed 500,000 homes damaged,
cutting off Haiti
Several bridges and roads destroyed.
1.…read more

Page 10

Preview of page 10

Here's a taster:

Reliant on overseas aid indefinitely. 1 month after the quake, the government
began rebuilding and repairing 196,000
New homes were to be built but would homes.
costs $billions.
Used its huge copper reserves to pay for
Required massive investment to restore the reconstruction efforts.
water and electric services.
Protection and the future
Haiti - Poorer Country Chile - A richer Country
Wasn't prepared- too poor and no recent After quake in 1960 Chile had prepared.
earthquake.…read more


No comments have yet been made

Similar Geography resources:

See all Geography resources »See all resources »