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Question 1: The Restless Earth Paper 1
Inner Core
Solid Iron and Nickel- over

Outer Core
Liquid Iron and Nickel

Molten rock- moving 1800- 3500

Crust - Thinnest layer
Plate Boundaries

Examples of Plate Margins
Destructive Nazca Plate and South American Plates

Conservative North American and Pacific…

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Destructive Plate Margins

Convection currents in the mantle cause plates to move together. If one plate is made
from oceanic crust and the other from continental crust , the denser oceanic crust
sinks under the lighter continental crust in a process known as subduction . Great
pressure is exerted and…

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Conservative Plate Margin

At conservative plate margins, the
plates are sliding past each other.
They are moving in similar (though
not the same) directions, at slightly
different angles and speeds. As one
plate is moving faster than the other
and in a slightly different direction,
they tend to get stuck.…

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Young fold mountains

Rivers flow sediment into the oceans between plates

Sediment forms layers on the ocean floor.

The Plates push together causing the sediment to be compressed. Rivers continue
to add more sediment.

Sediments forms rocks that begin to fold upwards.

This creates Young fold mountains.

How do people…

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Solutions- Hydroelectric power

Only 30% of Nepal has electricity. HEP enables Nepal to dam off rivers in mountainous
areas to provide sustainable energy to help develop the area.

Solutions - Farming

76% of Nepalese are farmers. The steep relief makes rice farming difficult, so slopes are
terraced to make the…

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Distribution of Volcanoes

Volcanoes are an example of a
natural hazard . Their spread
relates closely to plate margins.

The area around the Pacific Ocean is
especially prone to volcanoes and is
known as `the Pacific Ring of Fire'.

Occasionally active volcanoes are
found away from plate margins at

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Scientists will use tilt meters to measure the shape of the volcano and to detect
Measuring sulphur dioxide emissions enables scientists to detect a build up of gas
prior to an eruption.
Using seismographs means that they can detect tremors that could signify an
eruption is imminent.
What is…

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grounded and any flying could risk the engines failing midflight. Growing crops
would become difficult too.

Worldwide travel would cease and day would be turned to night. It would alter the
climate and make everywhere much colder. Up to 15 degree drop in global

The ash would stay in…

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Haiti is in the Caribbean Chile is in South America.

Ranked 143rd for GDP. Ranked 46th for GDP.

Very poor- hit 12 Jan 2010 by a 7.0 Rich - hit 27 February 2010 by a 8.8
earthquake. Earthquake

Primary effects

Haiti - Poorer Country Chile - A richer Country

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Reliant on overseas aid indefinitely. 1 month after the quake, the government
began rebuilding and repairing 196,000
New homes were to be built but would homes.
costs $billions.
Used its huge copper reserves to pay for
Required massive investment to restore the reconstruction efforts.
water and electric services.

Protection and…


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