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Aims
· To identify relationships between theories and
methods and to understand how viewpoints can
effect the ways sociologists research.…read more

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Theory and choice of an area of
research
· The variety of different views and theories
generates so many different opinions about
society.
Feminist Sociologists
· Believe their role in society is to examine the
position of women in society and to uncover the
ways in which patriarchy has been used to
control and oppress women. Consequently,
their choice of research projects will be
influenced by these views.…read more

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Marxist or critical sociologists
· Argue the most important area of study is the
question of how a small group of people exploits
the vast majority of the population. They study
issues such as the application of power and
wealth and the importance of class divisions.
Functionalist-orientated sociologists
· Believe society is based on a general consensus
of values. These type of sociologists are
interested in the ways society maintains
agreement on values and solves social problems.
Consequently, they look at he role of religion and
schools in passing on norms and values.…read more

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Theory and techniques of study
There are two types of theories in sociology:
Top-Down Approaches
· Generally used by Functionalists and Marxists
· Functionalists and Marxists believe the best way to view
society is to view it as a `thing' existing above all
individuals.
· They believe our role in society is to conform
· In research, they look for patterns of behaviour
individuals my not be aware of
· These sociologists often use quantitative methods that
produce statistics
· Sociologists who use `scientific' methods are known as
positivists.…read more

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Bottom-Up Approach
· Interactionism is a bottom-up approach
· This means that interactionists believe the only
way to understand society is to view the world
through the eyes of individuals, so research
starts and the `bottom' and works upwards
· Interpretative Sociologists tend to use qualitative
methods to apply this approach , such as
participant observation…read more

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