The Problem of Evil Revision

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Augustine and Ireneaus Revision
Evil = Lack of goodness
Augustine summary:
God saw all he had made and it was very good.
Soul deciding
Man in the image and likeness of god
Man has free will
Freedom leads to the fall
Freedom/free will leads to suffering and punishment for sin
Humanity is redeemed through Christ
God foresaw the fall
Evil is now part of the world
Evil is a privation
For Augustine evil was not and is not caused by God
Evil exists because God created humans with free will
God ­ God is creator, omnipotent and all good.
Harmonious Creation ­ Creation was good and harmonious
Hierarchy of being ­ Angels, humans and animals
The Fall ­ Angels and humans fall through their own free choices. Sin enters the world through Adam
and Eve.
Natural Evil ­ Disharm any follows the fall of angels. Leading to natural evil.
Free Will ­ Free will is valuable so God sustains a world within which moral and natural evil occurs.
Aesthetic Value - Existence of evil highlights the goodness of creation because of the contrast
between good and evil.
Criticisms
Schleiermacher argued there was a logical contradiction on holding that a perfectly created world
had gone wrong since this would mean that evil has created itself out of nothing which is logically
impossible. Whether or not evil is a deprivation it is still a real feature of the world, as is the suffering
it produces. Evil must somehow be attributed to god. Either the world was not perfect to begin with
or god enabled it to go wrong.
It can be rejected on scientific grounds and the fact that it doesn't show god as all loving.
Irenean Theodicy:
Evil is the outcome of god giving us free will
Soul making

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Man created imperfectly
Man has freewill
Freedom helps us to grow
Free will leads to development
Humanity redeemed through actions
God is at an epistemic distance so as not to compromise freedom
Suffering is necessary for growth
Evil can lead to good
Ireneaus does not use the Genesis story but instead focuses on one single verse;
`Then God said `Let us make man in our image, after our likeness'.
He concluded that there are two stages of creation.…read more

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The ends do not justify the means…read more

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