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What are the formal powers of the President?

· Veto. This is the power to reject any legislation that they
dislike, and do this by sending it back to Congress with
improvements. Congress can attempt to override it, but this
is difficult. They can also use the pocket…

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the Office of Management and Budget, part of EXOP, on
behalf of the President. After it has been submitted, a
lengthy bargaining process begins with Congress. A failure to
agree to a budget can lead to a government shutdown, such
as in October 2013 when Republicans refused to agree to…

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For example, FEMA's response to Hurricanes Katrina and Rita
was criticised for its inefficiency.
· Waste. Likely because of its size and dedication to routine,
the federal bureaucracy is more wasteful then the private
sector in dealing with its resources.
· Clientelism. This is when the federal bureaucracy become

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meeting, to get an update on issues, and finally, it gives them a
standing back in their offices, as they are informed on the
President's goals and what he wants. However, it is also argued
that the cabinet is not important. This is mainly because it
depends on how the…

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area legislation at cabinet meetings, so they are able to
inform him.
· Another way the President has influence is through perks as
the President, such as offering members help, inviting
members to the White House, addressing Capitol Hill itself,
campaigning for party members and appealing directly to the

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based on this. They are more likely to change the political
outlook of the court based on their ideology.

What factors limit or enhance presidential power?

· Size of majority. If the President wins in a large majority, for
example in 1980 and 1984 with Reagan (in the latter he…

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much experience with Washington, relying heavily on his
Vice President Cheney which reflected on him badly.
· Pressure groups- These are highly influential and some have
high loyalty to certain parties, such as the NRA and
Republican Party. This works in favour for Republicans when
they are in power, and…


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