The periodicity of period 3

Hiya :) starting my revision now so thought I'd share these. It covers all you need to know about periodicity of period 3 (Na - Ar) including: diagram showing s,p,d and f orbitals, ionisation energy, atomic radius, melting and boiling points, and states

happy revising :) let me know how you find them! thanks 


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  • Created by: Sophie
  • Created on: 12-11-11 15:48
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Sophie Groves
The periodicity of period three elements
Definition of periodicity
Trends or recurring variations in element properties with increasing atomic number periodicity is
caused by regular and predictable variations in element atomic structure.
Where are the S, P, D and F orbital's located within the periodic table?
The picture below shows the electronic arrangement of the elements of the periodic table. Once you
know how what is its last orbital you work backwards to fill in the rest.
Ionisation energy of period three:
Definition of ionisation energy: the first ionisation energy is the energy required to remove the
outermost electron from one mole of a gaseous atom to produce one mole of a gaseous ion with a
charge of +1.
This graph shows the ionisation energies for the elements which are in period three from Sodium ­
Argon (Na ­ Ar)

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Sophie Groves
The general trend of the ionisation energy is that it increases from about 450 kJ mol1 to roughly
1500 kJ mol1. The reason why it increases is because
However, there is a deviation in the ionisation energy for Aluminium (Al) in group 2 which its
ionisation energy is lower than Magnesium's ionisation energy. This is because in aluminium a new
sub shell is starting to be filled (3p), which makes it easier to remove this one electron, which lowers
the ionisation energy.…read more

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Sophie Groves
The three metals, sodium, magnesium and aluminium:
Melting and boiling point rises across the three metals as there is an increase in the strength of their
metallic bonds. This is because:
The nuclei of the atoms are getting more positively charged, due to the number of
delocalised electrons increasing. The atoms get smaller and they have more protons as you
go along.
The "sea of delocalised electrons" is becoming increasingly more negatively charged.…read more

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Sophie Groves
Phosphorous contains p4 molecules. To melt phosphorus you do not have to break any covalent
bonds. You just have to break the much weaker van der Waals forces which are between the
Sulphur consists of S8 rings of atoms. These molecules are bigger than those in a phosphorus
molecule so they have a higher van der Waals attraction and it means they are stronger, so their
melting and boiling point is higher.…read more


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