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Periodic Table- Founders
John Newlands and Dmitri Mendeleev
worked together to form the `Periodic
Table'. They both ordered the elements by
mass­ but Mendeleev left gaps for
undiscovered elements. He realised that
iodine should come after tellurium because
of its chemical properties even though it is
lighter in mass. He then realised that the
physical and chemical properties of
elements were related to their atomic mass
and so arranged them so that groups of
elements with similar properties fell into
vertical columns in his table.…read more

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Group 1 metals
Group 1 metals react with water and the
further down the group you go the more
violent the reactions get. Hydrogen gas is
produced and a metal hydroxide that is a
strong alkali is formed.
They are soft solids at room temperature.
They have a low melting and boiling point that
decrease as you go down
the groups.
They have low densities
so lithium, potassium
and sodium float on
water.…read more

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Group 1 metals
All group 1 metals have one outer
electron. They lose this electron in
reactions to form ionic compounds with
a positive charge.…read more

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Group 7 halogens
They are non-metals.
They have low melting and boiling points
that increase the further down the group
you go.
Their reactivity decreases going down the
group because attractions of outer
electrons to the nucleus decreases as the
number of occupied shells increase.
Halogens form ionic compounds with
metals in which their ions have a negative
charge. They also can covalently bond with
other non-metals forming molecules.…read more

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Group 7 halogens
The reactivity of the group 7 halogens is
so great that if a solution of chlorine (e.
g) is added to iodide ions, the chlorine
will displace the iodide, becoming
chloride ions and leaving the iodide in
the solution.
2NaI(aq) + Cl2(aq) 2NaCl(aq) + I2(aq)
The iodide is displaced because it is less
reactive than chlorine.…read more


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