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The Perfect Participle Passive
This is an adjective that is formed from a verb. It is extremely common in Latin,
present in almost every sentence, so understanding it is a great help.
The most common of the participles is the PPP (Perfect Participle Passive)
which is translated as `having been...' (For example, missus = having been sent).
With practice, this becomes easier to spot. There are certain ways in which
they can be found, most of the time:
1. It will have `ss' or a`t' at the end of the stem (just before the ending).
2. `-ion' can be added to the end of it to reveal an English abstract noun
(For example miss-us = miss-ion)
3. It will be found at the end of a phrase in commas.
4. There will be an `a' or `ab' + the ablative for the subject who did the
Pretty much the same rules apply for the PPA (Perfect Participle Active),
except there will be an accusative noun instead of `a' or `ab'. It is translated as