The Multi Store Model of Memory

Outline

STM and LTM

Research

Evaluation

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  • Created on: 26-12-12 14:54
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Cognitive Psychology 1
Multi-Store Model
The Multi-Store Model
Explain what is meant by the term model.
Memory The encoding, storage and retrieval of information or experience.
Model A hypothetical description or representation of a (complex) process.
Explain the concepts of encoding, capacity and duration.
Encoding How information is stored and processed, for example sounds, visual and meaning.
Capacity How much information can be stored.
Duration How long it lasts, for example a few minutes to a lifetime.
Explain how the encoding, capacity and duration of memory have been
measured.
Short Term Memory (STM) and Long Term Memory (LTM): Aspects
and Research
Encoding C D
a u
p r
a a
c t
i i
t o
y n
Short Term Acoustically encoded: Limited capacity of 7 ± 2 A limited duration measured in
Memory sound area of brain is `chunks' of information. seconds and minutes:
(STM) activated during approximately 20 seconds.
processing.
Research Conrad (1964) Miller (1956) P
e
t
e
r
s

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Cognitive Psychology 2
Multi-Store Model
o
n
a
n
d
P
e
t
e
r
s
o
n
(
1
9
5
9
)
Long Term Semantically encoded: Unlimited capacity. U
Memory associated with meaning.…read more

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Cognitive Psychology 3
Multi-Store Model
m
a
f
e
w
m
i
n
u
t
e
s
t
o
a
li
f
e
ti
m
e
.
Research Baddeley (1966) No research conducted B
due to impracticality. a
h
r
i
c
k
e
t
a
l
(
1
9
7
5
)
Example of STM: Trying to remember a 7 digit phone number that you have just been given.…read more

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Cognitive Psychology 4
Multi-Store Model
Example of LTM: Childhood memories
Short
Term
Memory
(STM)
Encoding Acoustically encoded: sound area of brain is activated during processing.
Research Conrad (1964) presented participants with a visual series of 6 letters. They were
asked to recall from STM and there was a tendency to confuse letters such as `b'
and `p', relating the majority of the errors to similar-sounding letters. Participants
must have therefore been using an acoustic code, converting the visual
representation of the letters into sounds.…read more

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Cognitive Psychology 5
Multi-Store Model
Percentage of correct recall:
3 second interval: 90%
18 second interval: 2%
This suggests that when rehearsal is prevented, STM lasts approximately 20
seconds at most.
Evaluation Artificial stimuli such as trigrams were used and were not an effective way of
testing memory as these are not remembered in everyday life; therefore the
study lacks ecological validity ­ the extent to which results can be applied to
real-life settings.…read more

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Cognitive Psychology 6
Multi-Store Model
Evaluation -
Duration Unlimited duration: anything from a few minutes to a lifetime.
Research Bahrick et al (1975)
The aim of the study was to establish the existence of very long-term memory
(vLTM) and to see whether there was any difference between recognition and
recall.
Investigators tracked down the graduates from a high school in America, and the
longitudinal study continued over a 50 year period.
392 graduates were shown photographs from their high school yearbook.…read more

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Cognitive Psychology 7
Multi-Store Model
Describe the multi-store model of memory and understand the functions and
limitations of its components (sensory memory, STM and LTM).
The multi-store model of memory
Atkinson and Shiffrin envisaged memory as a flow of information through an
information-processing system.
The MSM is a structural model based on the notion that there are separate memory stores.…read more

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Cognitive Psychology 8
Multi-Store Model
Sensory memory store
Information enters the system from the environment and first registers on the SM store.
It holds information for fractions of a second after the physical stimulus is no longer available.
The SM store constantly receives information but due to lack of attention, the information
only lasts for a short period of time.
It is made up of five stores, one for each of the senses: sight, hearing, touch, smell and taste.…read more

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Cognitive Psychology 9
Multi-Store Model
Describe and evaluate the evidence upon which the model is based.
Evaluatio
n of the
Multi-Sto
re Model
of
Memory
Glanzer
and Cunitz
(1964):
Supporting
the
multi-store
model,
specifically
the concept
that there
are
separate
LTM and
STM stores.
Aim To see if they could find evidence for the existence of separate short-term and
long-term memory stores.…read more

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Cognitive Psychology 10
Multi-Store Model
Procedure Participants were presented with a list of words (acoustically dissimilar), one at a time,
and then asked to recall the words in any order (free recall).
Divided into two groups:
1. Immediate recall group: recalled the words immediately after they had been
presented.
2. Delayed recall group: a distraction task of counting backwards for 30 seconds
before recalling the words was deployed.
Findings Found free recall of a list of unrelated words produces a characteristic serial
position curve.…read more

Comments

MrsMacLean

This booklet is brilliant - lots of colour, diagrams, key points and evaluative comments...just fantastic!

10ELIROB

Really good- helpful with evaluative points because I struggle to evaluate memory models

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