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Cognitive Psychology 1
Multi-Store Model



The Multi-Store Model
Explain what is meant by the term model.

Memory The encoding, storage and retrieval of information or experience.

Model A hypothetical description or representation of a (complex) process.



Explain the concepts of encoding, capacity and duration.

Encoding How information is stored and…

Page 2

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Cognitive Psychology 2
Multi-Store Model

o
n
a
n
d

P
e
t
e
r
s
o
n
(
1
9
5
9
)
Long Term Semantically encoded: Unlimited capacity. U
Memory associated with meaning. n
(LTM) li
m
it
e
d
d
u
r
a
ti
o
n
:…

Page 3

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Cognitive Psychology 3
Multi-Store Model

m

a
f
e
w

m
i
n
u
t
e
s
t
o
a
li
f
e
ti
m
e
.

Research Baddeley (1966) No research conducted B
due to impracticality. a
h
r
i
c
k
e
t
a
l
(
1
9…

Page 4

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Cognitive Psychology 4
Multi-Store Model

Example of LTM: Childhood memories

Short
Term
Memory
(STM)

Encoding Acoustically encoded: sound area of brain is activated during processing.

Research Conrad (1964) presented participants with a visual series of 6 letters. They were
asked to recall from STM and there was a tendency to…

Page 5

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Cognitive Psychology 5
Multi-Store Model

Percentage of correct recall:
3 second interval: 90%
18 second interval: 2%
This suggests that when rehearsal is prevented, STM lasts approximately 20
seconds at most.

Evaluation Artificial stimuli such as trigrams were used and were not an effective way of
testing memory as these…

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Cognitive Psychology 6
Multi-Store Model

Evaluation -
Duration Unlimited duration: anything from a few minutes to a lifetime.
Research Bahrick et al (1975)
The aim of the study was to establish the existence of very long-term memory
(vLTM) and to see whether there was any difference between recognition and
recall.…

Page 7

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Cognitive Psychology 7
Multi-Store Model




Describe the multi-store model of memory and understand the functions and
limitations of its components (sensory memory, STM and LTM).




The multi-store model of memory

Atkinson and Shiffrin envisaged memory as a flow of information through an
information-processing system.
The MSM is a structural model…

Page 8

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Cognitive Psychology 8
Multi-Store Model

Sensory memory store

Information enters the system from the environment and first registers on the SM store.
It holds information for fractions of a second after the physical stimulus is no longer available.
The SM store constantly receives information but due to lack of attention,…

Page 9

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Cognitive Psychology 9
Multi-Store Model




Describe and evaluate the evidence upon which the model is based.

Evaluatio
n of the
Multi-Sto
re Model
of
Memory

Glanzer
and Cunitz
(1964):
Supporting
the
multi-store
model,
specifically
the concept
that there
are
separate
LTM and
STM stores.

Aim To see if they could…

Page 10

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Cognitive Psychology 10
Multi-Store Model

Procedure Participants were presented with a list of words (acoustically dissimilar), one at a time,
and then asked to recall the words in any order (free recall).

Divided into two groups:

1. Immediate recall group: recalled the words immediately after they had been
presented.
2.…

Comments

MrsMacLean

This booklet is brilliant - lots of colour, diagrams, key points and evaluative comments...just fantastic!

10ELIROB

Really good- helpful with evaluative points because I struggle to evaluate memory models

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