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"It is impossible to think of a command
without thinking of a commander"
H.P. Owen argued that laws do not write
themselves, so the presence of objective
moral laws implies a divine lawgiver.
He said either these laws must be simply
brute fact or require an explanation ­ They
require an explanation so must be from God.…read more

Slide 3

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The presence of conscience (feelings of
shame/guilt) show there is a God.
Conscience can be seen as the voice of God.…read more

Slide 4

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Decision making is a religious experience,
whenever we make a moral decision we have
an indirect experience of God.
The fact we have a conscience and feel an
obligation towards other human beings
implies that humans have intrinsic value.
There must have been a being to instil value
into human beings.
This being is God.…read more

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Believed that we work towards the Summum
Bonum ­ the state of absolute happiness and
perfect morality.
We have a sense of morality which obligates
us to act morally.
With this sense of obligation comes the three
postulates (assumptions): freedom (to make
the decisions), an afterlife, and God's
His argument went as follows...…read more

Slide 6

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1. We feel a sense of duty to do what is right.
If we feel a duty to act morally, we feel a
duty to act towards the goal of morality ­
Summum Bonum/the highest good.
2. God, as creator and sustainer, is the only
being able to bring this about we, as
mere humans cannot reward morality with
happiness and can see that this doesn't
always happen in the empirical world.
3. Ought implies can it would be illogical to
aim for something unachievable, so it must
be possible to achieve the highest good.
God is needed to bring this about,
therefore God exists.…read more

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