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Slide 1

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Memory Models…read more

Slide 2

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Multi-Store Model 3 stores
Information from STM has a finite capacity
Don't notice these
the environment & duration but if you
things but if you pay
initially goes into rehearse the information
attention to them then it
our sensory then it will be transferred
goes into STM.
memory. into LTM where it will
remain.…read more

Slide 3

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Repetitive rehearsing ­
Rehearing the
rehearsing something over
information by thinking
and over and over again until
of the meaning of the
it is remembered.
word rather than simply
repeating it.
Largely Verbal…read more

Slide 4

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MSM +'s
Cunitz (1966)
Pp's are able to recall the first few items Pp's also tend to recall the last
of a list better than those in the middle. few items of a list better than
M-S M explains this as earlier items those in the middle.
would have been rehearsed better and The earlier items are rehearsed
transferred into LTM. If rehearsal is and in LTM whereas the recent
prevented by an interference task, the ones are recalled because they'
effect disappears, as the model predicts. re still in the STM.
(Amnesia caused by chronic alcoholism) ­ They
can recall the last items in a list (unimpaired
recency effect) however their LTM is very poor.
Supports the model by showing that they're two
different stores.…read more

Slide 5

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MSM ­'s
Craik & Lockhart (1975)
Information is transferred from the STM to LTM through rehearsal. But in real
life people don't always spend time rehearsing, yet they still transfer information
into LTM.
Rehearsal is not always used and some things cannot be stored, e.g. smells.
Things that are processed more deeply are more memorable.
The model is oversimplified.
It assumes there is only one LT store and one ST store. This has been disproved by evidence
from brain damaged patients, suggesting several different ST stores and other evidence
suggesting different LT stores.
E.g. Shallice & Warrington, 1970. KF suffered brain damage which ended up with
him having difficulty with Verbal information in STM but not visual information,
showing two different stores in STM.
Schachter et al, (2000) suggested there are 4 LT stores; semantic memory (knowledge about
the world & words), Episodic memory (what you did yesterday), Procedural memory (riding a
bike, how to read) & perceptual-representation system (perceptual priming and the enhanced
recognition of specific stimuli).…read more

Slide 6

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Working Memory Model
Central Executive;
Drives the whole
system. Focus attention Visuo - spatial Sketch
Episodic Buffer;
on most important Pad;
tasks. Extra general
Used when you have to
storage system plan a spatial task (e.g.
Phonological Loop;
that has limited getting from one room to
capacity. the other).
Deals with auditory information and Integrates Visual ­ what things look
preserves the order of information.
information from like.
Words are silently repeated ­ form
the other 3 stores. Spatial ­ the relationship
of maintenance rehearsal.
between things.…read more

Slide 7

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