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Models Of Abnormality 1


The Biological Model of Abnormality







The implication of this model is that by assuming a biological cause there maybe a cure.

There are four branches of biological explanation




Infection

Mental illness has been linked to germs and bacteria.

- Diagnosis can lead to a cure

Flu…

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Models Of Abnormality 2



There is evidence of biochemistry as an explanation of abnormality. E.g. Prozac treats depression by
raising serotonin levels (which are known to be low in depressive people)

Neuroanatomy

Abnormality is down to nervous system.

Brains of schizophrenics are shown to be different from normal brains (post…

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Models Of Abnormality 3


2. Defense Mechanisms: Overuse of defense mechanisms can lead to abnormality.

Repression: burying traumatic memories in the unconscious, and therefore not remembering the
event.
Displacement: unconsciously moving impulses away from a threatening object to a less threatening
object.
Projection: unconsciously attributing your own undesirable characteristics onto…

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Models Of Abnormality 4










The Cognitive Model of Abnormality




So abnormality is caused by faulty thinking. These thoughts generally have a "must have" quality,
i.e. I must have this or something terrible will happen, this is distorted and irrational thinking.

Most often applied to patients with anxiety or depression.

Beck…

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Models Of Abnormality 5





Most learning takes the form of operant or classical conditioning.

Classical Conditioning

Learning to link one stimulus with another.
E.g. Pavlov's Dogs and Little Albert.


Operant Conditioning

Learning a new behaviour because that behaviour has previously resulted in reinforcement.
Positive reinforcement increases the likelihood a person…

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Models Of Abnormality 6


-Treatments accused of being unethical
-Treatments for the benefit of society rather than the individual

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