The Matteotti Crisis 1924 25

How did this crisis impact on Mussolini? How did he react? How did the public react? for Edexcel AS History Modern, Italy and Fascism 1919-25

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Matteotti Crisis (June 1924Jan 1925)
In May 1924 a socialist MP Giacomo Matteotti stood up in parliament and attacked Mussolini,
claiming the results of the election were due to violence and fraud. He was abducted as he
left the chamber and discovered 2 weeks later murdered.
Mussolini was widely suspected of organizing the murder. He has 3 options:
1. Deny it
2. Shift the blame elsewhere
3. Accept responsibility
Mussolini's response:
a) Denial13th June (to Parliament)
"Only one of my enemies could commit this crime, that fills me with horror and stirs us to
cries of anger"
But evidence mounts of his involvement:
Filipelli His car was used
De Bono
Rossi Was Mussolini's press secretary
The PSI lead a walk out from parliament calling on the King to remove Mussolini. This was
known as "The Aventine Sucession"
b) Shift the blame elsewhere
Rossi and Dumini were arrested and De Bono was sacked as Chief of Police.
Strengthen links with the King and the elites e.g. Fascist militia. Oath was now
to the King
Increases repressive measures e.g Militia mobilized (ordered out onto street)
Censorship is strengthened.
But in December 1925:
Rossi's "Memorandum" is published which says:
"Everything that has happened is either through the direct will or through
the approval or complicity of the Duce"
c) Accepts responsibility (3rd January 1925)
Under pressure from the Ras, (and encouraged by the King's failure to act so far)
Mussolini declared to parliament that he took responsibility for Matteotti's death. He
also declared his intention to rule in future ass dictator!


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