the making of modern britain 51-75

this is notes on britain - hope its helpful - i made them for myself but thought id share

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Sawsan Hamawandy
Britain 1951- 2007
Politics (Pre 1951)
After Atlee (L), Churchill (C) came back into power
Atlee legacy (NHS, Welfare State), post war consensus (until Thatcher broke away from it)
Both parties were similar: followed centralist politics
Atlee led the Labour Party for 20years and prime minister from 1945-1951. In his lifetime, Atlee was not
much admired, but since 1951 his reputation has gone up, being described as Britain's best post war prime
minister. Atlee's government achieved its goals.
People thought the victory of the war must lead to a better, fairer Britain with more opportunities. This was
the post-war consensus. Conservatives view was that the post war consensus was a mistaken policy and
that conservatives should have broken away from it much sooner, to prevent it from becoming a `nanny
state'
People thought Churchill was larger-than-life. Whereas Labour politicians thought he was old and tired. He
was prime mister from 1940-1945 and again in 1951-1955. However Labour nearly won the 1951
elections. If Atlee had called for election a little later they might have stayed in power.
Economy (Pre 1951)
The war had badly damages Britain's infrastructure.
Britain was in debt and needed financial help from the USA
Industries such as steel and railways had been nationalised by Atlee's government.
Rationing had only just come to an end. Consumer goods were expensive and scarce.
British firms were major manufacturers of cars, electrical good and machinery.
Living standards rose. People had better clothes, more cars, homes and consumer goods. People had more
time for leisure and entertainment.
Britain's growth was slower than that of the USA and Japan.
Social (Pre 1951)
Films were in black and white. Few people had TVs. Entertainment was usually cinema and listening to the
radio. Churches were full on Sundays.
Most holidays were to the seaside and in camp resorts. Few people had passports.
There were no supermarkets, motorways or use of air travel. Railways reached every corner of Britain.
Most cities and towns consisted of factories and chimneys. Air pollution was a problem.
Most working women were single, and then stopped working when they got married.
Britain's position in the world (Pre 1951)
Before this period, Britain was part of the Great Alliance and was in possession of its empire. It had a large
royal Navy and had colonies all over the war.
Britain was a key ally of the US during the cold war. British troops were fighting the Korean War in
1950-1953.
Decolonised India (`Jewels in the crown') in 1947.
Militarily and economically, Britain could not keep up with the US or the Soviet Unions.
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Sawsan Hamawandy
The Marshall was the large-scale American program to aid Europe where the United States gave monetary
support to help rebuild European remove trade barriers, modernize industry, and make Europe prosperous
again.
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Politics (1951- 1964)
Conservatives were dominant because they had reorganised their party with good leaders such as R. A.
Butler. Then accepted the legacy of Atlee's government. They could not abolish these policies because the
NHS had an iconic status.…read more

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Sawsan Hamawandy
From 1952 onwards, wages were going up and people had money to save. There was a boom in car and
home ownership. Macmillan said he would build 300,000 homes per year. Local governments spent millions
clearing up pre-war slums.
Roads and motor ways were being built. Railways which were nationalised in 1948 were cut.
Food rationing had completely ended by 1954.
Most people could afford consumer goods e.g. TVs, washing machines and fridges. ­ There was a general
`feel-good factor'.…read more

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Some Conservatives were saying `Anyone but Ted'. In 1975, Thatcher became leader of the Conservatives.
Heath became known for this `Long Sulk'.
Economy (1964-1975)
When Labour came into power, the national debt was between £400m-£800m.
James Callaghan was chancellor. George Brown was put in charge of the DEA (Department of Economic
Affairs: Labours plan for the economy). This put him in competition with James Callaghan. It showed Wilson
was trying to keep people happy.
James Callaghan was replaced by Roy Jenkins.…read more

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Sawsan Hamawandy
President Johnson wanted Britain to send troops into the Vietnam War, but Wilson refused. They were not
even allowed to use the NATO bases. The Vietnam War was hugely unpopular in Britain. There was a
massive anti-war demonstration. The Special Relationship was falling apart.
Marr said "by 1975, the Empire was formally over".…read more

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Sawsan Hamawandy
Still don't know
CND
Page 6…read more

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