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The LOP Model
Craik and Lockhart (1972)
This model accepts that some memories last much
longer than others, but it focuses on how info is
encoded and processed rather than on how it is
transferred from one store to another.
Material can be processed @ different levels, and the
levels of processing determines how likely the material
is to be remembered. Shallow (structural) is processed
visually. Deeper (phonemic) is processed acoustically
and deepest (semantic) is processed because of
meaning. Deeper processing results in stronger and
more durable memories.
Craik and Lockhart argue that more rehearsal does not
necessarily mean info will be stored in LTM.
According to them, the most important factor is depth
of processing rather than frequency of rehearsal.
Even deeper processing can occur through elaboration
and organisation. As the more complex, the strong the
Recall can be improved just by the act of
organising and structuring material even
when no conscious attempt is made to learn