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  • Created on: 19-05-13 13:31

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Green Paper:
A green paper is issued when the government wishes to hear from those interested
in an area of law that is planning to be changed or even be made. First process is public
consultation. It gets feedback from public and many choose to revise the ideas it first
considered based on the feedback it gets.
White paper:
White paper is issued after the Green paper process is complete. The proposals in
the white paper are firm at this stage. What ever changes needed to be made is made.
However this is not an act of parliament yet. The white paper is the one that is show in the
house of parliament in first reading.
Draft acts of parliament come in two main forms, public and private. They can start in the
House of Commons or the House of lords but a financial Bill must start in the House of
Commons. if the Bill is to become law, it must go through a number of stages and each of
these stages are important as they improve the quality of the statute and allow input from
relevant contributors and make the end result less bias.
Public Bills: (Government)
All public Bills affect the whole country and are proposed by the government. The
government controls the legislative laws, which means that the winning party labour is
allocates the most time to pass its own ideas for new laws. Public Bills are the most
successful because the winning party has the most seats in parliament so are more likely to
win. The government may get many ideas for new laws from many different sources, For
example: Manifestoes promises of the winning party and cabinet ministers, who many
propose changes to laws concerning the department.
Private members: Bills (Local authorities)
Private bills may be introduced by a large company, local councillors, and public
cooperation. And only affects a particular area or group in the community and not the whole
community. Like for example local council may require to make a speed restriction on a
road, build a new building.
Private Members Bills:
These are Bills put forward by backbench MPs from any members of the political
parties. A very small amount of parliament time is spent discussing Private Members Bills.
These are put forward by individual MPs. These Bills reflect what issues are most important
to them. Most successful private Members Bills usually may have government support. Most
Bills are not successful are controversial, but there have been some successful ones like
ABORTION ACT (1967) by a MP called David Steele.
The First Reading:
First reading gives information about the title of the Bill is read out. A vote is held in
the House of Commons usually verbally, if there are enough Ayes then the Bill is carried
forward to the next stage.

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The Second Reading:
The main aims of the Bill are read out and then main debates take place on the
proposal in the Bill usually in the House of Commons. Members of parliament discuss
debate and test the Bills strengths and weaknesses. Then there is another vote at the end
where the MPs have to go through two doors which determine whether or not the Bill goes
on to the next stage.…read more

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It informs the public and gets them involved in law making through the process of
Green paper and White paper.
The legislative process is very long and time consuming it takes on Bills
several months to go through the stages required in both Houses of parliament
The Bill could very easily get confusing as it goes through the different stages and
also lose its original focus points through the amount of changing, editing, and
amendments.…read more

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European Union.
But this is very unlikely as because politically and realistically makes it very unlikely.
Being apart of the EU has many effect on the English legal system meaning that their
law has priority over English law. This was show by the MARCHANT SHIPPING ACT
Human Rights Act (1998):
All the acts have to be compactable with the EU convention of Human rights act.…read more

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Just because parliament gave away power does not mean that responsibility is given
away to. At the end of the day, Government picks up the blame is thing go wrong. It is
therefore keen to monitor as closely delegate legislation in number of different ways.
Scrutiny Committee:
The job of the scrutiny committee is to check statutory instruments and let
parliament know of any problems. It is responsibly for looking at things close detail.…read more

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Statutory interpretation:
Statutory interpretation means making sense of word which are used in Acts of
Parliament that have problems with their meanings or are unclear, it is the courts job to find
out how parliament intended the law to be interpreted and applied.
Ambiguity of language:
Ambiguity of language means that a word used in an act of parliament may have two
There may be a printing error or a drafting error or another error.
New inventions and situations could change interpretations.…read more

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Gives judges the chance to choose the result which would be the less bizarre and
If a judge thinks of the rule ad being bizarre because they perhaps do not like the
law then they may then see absurdities that perhaps do not even exists.
Can only be used in limited circumstances
Mischief Rule:
Mischief rule gives judges more freedom of discretion than the other rules do like
look at the bigger picture.…read more


Law student

Great revision notes, but the spelling could be majorly improved!! 

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