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Isaac Butt ­ had become increasingly disillusioned with HOC and so supported
notion of Home Rule; Ireland govern itself with its own Parliament.
Home Rule Association formed in Dublin 1870. Support was minimal at first,
but increased with focus on policies like tenant rights.
Association replaced with HR League in 1873 ­ more favoured because
followed failure of Universities Bill.
1874 General Election, in which HRL won 59 seats.
HRL became HR Party: LITTLE IMPACT SO FAR ­ weak leadership, no
organisation or membership and no agreement over HR.
Butt was a weak leader ­ lacked ruthlessness, not inspirational and
focused more on legal career, often being absent from HOC.
His leadership was challenged by more militant Home Rulers.
1875: Biggar and O'Connor began `obstruction' in HOC - filibustering ­ Parnell
joined them.
Parnell convinced of con nat power and was elected as Home Ruler in Meath,
Parnell was a good orator, especially to mass audiences.
Was elected President in 1877 of Home Rule Confederation of GB.
Was a great hero among militants ­ had contacts amongst the Fenians.
Parliamentary Approach demanding
Home Rule. Home Rule Party.…read more

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Poor harvests between 1877 and 1879, plus another
famine = decline in agriculture.
What is more, import of cheaper US grain = decline in
jobs and pay for many.
1879-82 = Land War.
Davitt = key. He joined Fenians and was arrested n
1870 ­ upon release (7 years) he re-joined them.
Visited USA in 1878 ­ met American Fenian, John
Devoy, who encouraged Davitt to work for land reform
and self-govt.
Spring 1879 ­ threw himself into smallholders dispute
in County Mayo: meetings and demonstrations
organised to oppose evictions, get fair rents and land
reform. Encouraged Parnell to support, which he did.
June 1879 ­ NEW DEPARTURE.
The Land League. Michael Davitt.
The economic and often violent
approach demanding Land Reform…read more

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October 1879: Irish National Land League formed by Davitt ­ `The Land for
the People'. Funded by Irish-American money.
Parnell became President of movement ­ pro-'3 Fs' (fair rents, fixity of
tenure and free sale).
Aims of Land League:
End Rack-renting, eviction and Landlord oppression.
Effect radical change so Irish farmers becomes owners of their land.
Ways of achieving:
Organisation amongst farmers.
Cultivation of public opinion via persistent exposure of how unjust the system was.
Resolute demand for rent reduction.
Temperate but firm resistance to oppression and injustice.
Though notably all propaganda ­ mid 1800s, rents were moderate and
tenants were prosperous. Land League just wanted to increase income
by decreasing rents, essentially.
Between 1879-83, 14600 tenants evicted. League told tenants:
Offer less rent
Help evictees
Take care of imprisoned families
Boycott farmers who tried to take the holding of an evicted tenant.
A number of outrages against landlords: 2,590 incidents reported in 1880
alone. Murders (67 b/t 1879 and 1882), assaults, intimidation, threatening
letters and attacks on properties and animals.
Attacks happened at nigh and varied in nature so hard to control. Local
population silently agreed with protest too.…read more

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June 1879 ­ Dublin ­ meeting between Davitt, Parnell and
Devoy ­ agreed to support tenants' demands and self-
But situation with Land League = difficult to control ­ violence
raised issues for con nats, like Parnell.
Though Parnell was in America, gaining money and spreading word
of Irish Nationalism ­ successful trip: spoke to 62 cities and
appealed to all sections of Irish-American opinion.
April 1880 ­ General Election ­ Liberals won, 61 Home Rulers
17th May 1880 ­ Parnell elected leader of IPP by 23 votes to 18 ----
shows resentment towards his ink with radicalism and the Fenians.
Had Parnell in parliament filibustering; Davitt outside using
boycotting and moral pressure via Land League; and Devoy in US
spreading Irish Nationalism and funding, via American Brotherhood.
Coop of rev and con nat for first time
Results in Kilmainham Treaty, Home Rule and Land Act 1885.
The New Departure…read more


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