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The Non-Specific Immune Response
· Phagocytosis!
· Macrophages or lymphocytes ingest
pathogens.
· Stimulated by antigens on pathogen
· ANTIGEN: Anything that will trigger an
immune response, usually a surface protein or
cell membrane of a foreign bacteria.…read more

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The Specific Immune Response
· There are 4 main types of cells involved in
this: Antigen presenting cells, T-helper cells, T-
killer cells and B-cells.
· When a new antigen enters the body, it takes
the body a while to produce antibodies, so
you become ill.
· When a known antigen enters the body the
response is much faster and it is dealt with
before it has a chance to make you ill - the
secondary response…read more

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Antigen presenting cells
· These can either be macrophage cells or infected
body cells.
· Macrophage cells ingest the pathogen and
`display' the antigens from the pathogen on the
cell surface membrane, allowing other cells to
bind to them.
· Body cells will try to fight back when they are
infected by a pathogen. Lysosomes break down
the pathogen and again, the antigens from the
pathogen are displayed on the cell surface
membrane.…read more

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T-helper cells
· Originate in the bone marrow and mature in
the thymus gland
· When antigens are presented, a T-helper cell
that can bind to the antigen, is `selected' -
'clonal selection'
· It then proliferates by 'clonal expansion'
· The T-helper cells bind to the antigens on the
antigen presenting cells and release cytokines
(chemical messages) that stimulate B-cells to
proliferate and differentiate.…read more

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T-killer cells
· Originate in the bone marrow and mature in
the thymus gland
· The correct T-killer cell is selected by 'clonal
selection'
· It then proliferates by 'clonal expansion'
· These bind to antigen presenting cells so that
they know what antigen to look for.
· When they see a body cell displaying the
specific antigen, it binds to it and destroys the
cell using hydrogen peroxide and perforins.…read more

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