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The Hovland Yale model of persuasion- evidence
Chaiken and Eagly-source
They compared a likeable person with a unlikeable person and got participants to read a
letter written by each person, to listen to a tape of each person reading a message and then
to watch a video of each person conveying the message. They found that people were more
persuaded by the letter which was written by the unlikeable person but were more
persuaded by the likeable person when listening to their voice and watching them on a video.
This shows that attractive people with attractive voices are more persuasive and influential.
Hovland and Weiss-source
They used an independent groups design and the study took place before the submarine
nuclear reactor was invented. They drew up some plans for a nuclear submarine and wither
published it under the name of Robert Oppenhiemer who was a famous scientist or in a
Russian tabloid newspaper. The participants were more likely to believe the plans published
by the scientist than the plans in the newspaper. This is because famous people and experts
are more persuasive and also because the expert has legitimate authority.
In this study they presented 3 random things which included random trigrams, Chinese
letters and pictures from yearbook photos. Participants were exposed to all of these
repeatedly and they found that after a while they were more likely to find them interesting
or meaningful. This shows that repeated exposure to adverts would make it more likely that
participants would be influenced by them.
This study took place at the end of the Second World War. He tested arguments about the
war between America and Japan and if it would last longer than 2 years or not. The
researchers gave the Americans, arguments on whether or not the war would last longer
than 2 years. They gave one sided arguments such as America will win as they have better
weapons and 2 sided arguments such as both have an equal chance. They found that when
they told new recruits they were more influenced by the one sided argument but with
experienced soldiers the 2 sided argument was more effective. This shows that people with
less experience are more influenced by 2 sided arguments.
Sinclair, Mark and Clare-audience
The researcher phoned students and told them their number of exams has doubled. They
asked some students on a sunny day and some on a rainy day. They found that students
asked on the sunny day were more likely to support the changes than those asked on the
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Wood and Stagner- audience
This looked at the link between intelligence and the potential for attitude change using the
inverted U theory. This shows that low intelligence are not influenced by the message as
they don't understand it and high intelligence people aren't influenced by the message as
they have their own opinion and will argue against the message. Those with medium
intelligence will most likely be influenced by the message.…read more