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The functions of
sleep: The
Topic 6…read more

Slide 2

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Oswold (1980)
Slow wave sleep (SWS) and REM sleep
Intro have different functions
SWS: body repair
REM: brain recovery…read more

Slide 3

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Growth hormones are
secreted in SWS sleep
This is important in
childhood as well as
Growth hormones The Immune
restore body tissue by System
renewing fragile proteins
Krueger et al (1985)
Although it's also
SWS secreted in pulses during
the day ­ it is mainly
A lack of SWS sleep is
associated with reduced
sleep released in SWS sleep.
Sassin et al (1969)
immune system
AO1 Growth hormone release This is because various
antibodies of the immune
is controlled by neural
mechanisms which are system regenerate during
related to SWS cell growth and protein
synthesis that occurs
Cauter et al (1996) during SWS
The amount of growth
hormones released is
linked to the amount of
SWS sleep the individual
has had
This links SWS to growth
hormones.…read more

Slide 4

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Brain Growth
· REM is associated with brain growth
· Psychologists have suggested that the amount of REM a
species has depends on its immaturity at birth
Siegel (2003)
· A platypus is immature at birth and has approximately
8 hours of REM a day
· A dolphin can swim at birth and has almost no REM
Neurotransmitter release
Siegel et al (1988)
REM · REM sleep provides a break in neurotransmitter release
· This is where the neurons regain sensitivity so that the
sleep body can function properly
· Antidepressants aim to increase the release of the
AO1 neurotransmitter dopamine ­ this abolishes REM sleep
This suggests the increase in neurotransmitters means its
receptors don't need to regain sensitivity so REM is
· Crick and Mitchinson (1983): In REM sleep unwanted
memories are discarded so that important memories can
be accessed
· Stickgold (2005) : The relationship between sleep and
memory is more complex. REM sleep consolidates
procedural memory (skills such as riding a bike) and SWS…read more

Slide 5

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Rechtstaffen (1983)
Put rats on a rotating disk
When they wanted to sleep the disk would
Within 33 days all the rats had died
nonhuma This suggests that sleep deprivation can be fatal
n studies.
However was it due to sleep deprivation or
Sleep stress?
Rattenborg et al (2005)
n is fatal Did a similar experiment with pigeons and none
of them died
This suggests that it isn't fatal and that the
stress was too much for the rats…read more

Slide 6

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There has been some research on total sleep
deprivation and its effects.
Randy Gardner (1965) : stayed awake for
AO2- 260 hours (11 days and 24 minutes!)
without any psychotic symptoms. He was
the fine after a lengthy sleep
effects Williams et al (1959): participants would
have short periods of micro-sleep. EEG
of sleep recordings show that micro-sleep is the
exact same as sleep however people are
deprivatio awake
These studies suggest that a lack of sleep
doesn't actually cause any long term damage…read more

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