First 340 words of the document:
The foreign interventions: 1918-1920
What led foreign powers to intervene in Russia?
French- lent money to industrialise Russia and wanted it back.
Japan- valuable land.
Britain- didn't want spread of Bolshevism (communism) and the Allies.
USA- didn't want Japan to get any land and were against communism.
Allies wanted to open eastern front against Germany.
How did it spread?
Started when allies sent to open eastern front against Germany.
War ended but troops stayed in Archangel and Murmansk to guard munitions dumps (Weapon
Britain sent £100 million pounds worth of weapons to the whites.
Liberals opposed this.
Why did foreign interventions not succeed?
Why did the Bolsheviks try to invade Poland?
Poles took advantage of chaotic situation in Russia- mad it to Kiev.
Lenin pushed back to Warsaw
What was Lenin's attitude towards foreign affairs?
Spread of communism wasn't good.
Time not right for revolution.
Foreign countries intervened they relied on them- other countries too strong.
Communist revolutions in Germany and Hungary.
To avoid conflict, rather than expansionism (get land and get bigger).
What was life like during the civil war?
Brutal and chaotic.
No central authorities- everybody fended for themselves.
Places changed hands e.g. Kiev 16 times.
Army need food- less for that place.
Unit of soldiers changed sides- where their interests were.
Large no. of atrocities- such as rape and murders of whole villages (Jews) - taken 115,000 lives.
Jews supported the Bolsheviks.
Whites shot miners led to a shortage of coal.
Buried miners alive.
Reds nailed epaulettes of officers to soldiers whilst still alive.
Disease killed most people- typhus spread by lice- killed 1 million people. More people from
disease then from fighting.
What effect did civil war have on character of Bolshevism?
Become more cautious.
Ruthless and determined government.