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Marucha- exam stress punch biopsy
· Investigated whether exam stress had an effect on
the healing rate of wounds
· Inflicted a punch biopsy into the mouths of students
either during their summer holidays or 3 days before
their exams.
· Found that wounds took longer to heal during the
exam period than during the summer holidays
· This shows that chronic stress can reduce the
immune systems ability to function…read more

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Marucha- exam stress punch biopsy-
evaluation
· Poor population validity- only studied students so
effects can't be generalised to other populations
· Unethical- caused students harm as they were given
an injury
· Assumes that the exam period is more stressful than
summer holidays, some students may find the holidays
more stressful…read more

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Fischer- astronauts (acute stress)
· Studied astronauts and found that they had higher
lymphocyte (immune cell) levels during splashdown
· This shows that acute stress can increase the immune
systems response…read more

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Fischer- astronauts (acute stress)-
evaluation
· Low population validity- only studied astronauts so
results can't be generalised to other populations as
most people wouldn't experience this kind of stressor
· Confounding variable- effects on the immune system
could also be due to the effects of weightlessness
that experienced in space therefore this study has
low internal validity…read more

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Kiecolt-glaser, chronic stress, exam
stress- killer t cells
· Investigated whether chronic stress had an effect on
the immune system of medical students
· Blood samples taken a month before and then during
the exam period
· Found that there were less killer T cells during the
exam period compared to a month before the exams
· This shows that chronic stress reduces the immune
systems ability to function…read more

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