The Development of Cattle Ranching

This document contains a detailed set of notes on the development of cattle ranching.

Only the key points what you need to learn for the exam have been listed.

If you would like to look further into detail on these points, you can look on bbc biotesize, but i have summerised everything on there into clear poitns which are easier to learn for the exam.

If you have any questions feel free to message me :)

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  • Created by: Georgia
  • Created on: 10-04-13 13:25
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The Development of Cattle Ranching:
· cowboys and cattle ranchers, first group of european settlers to
move onto plains
18201865: Origins in Texas
· ranching first started in texas
· 1836 ­ texan ranchers drove mexicans out
· 1861 ­ civil war ­ cattle roamed free
1865 ­ 1870: The 'long drives' ­ first 'open range' ranch
· demand for beef ­ drove cattle on long drive to missouri
· Charles Goodnight + Oliver Loving pioneered a second trail where
sold cattle to gold miners
· 1868 ­ John Iliff won contract to supply beef to the sioux (forced in
reservations in black hills)
· Joseph McCoy set up a cow town with a railroad and saloons on way
to abilene
· 1867 ­ John Iliff, first rancher to set up an 'open range' ranch
1870 ­ 1885: The 'open range'
· Goodnight invented the crazy quilt (buying small pieces of land over
an area, he could effectively control it all)
· refrigeration opened a wide market for beef
· by 1885, 35 cattlebarons owned 1.5 million cattle
Why Cattle Ranching developed on the Plains:
· free availability of ­ wild cattle, wild horses, grass
· huge + growing market for beef in north
· railroads ­ brought cattle to market places
· long drives ­ took cattle to railroads
· cowtowns + stockyards ­ cattle loaded onto trains
· cowboys ­ without skills, long drives wouldn't be possible
· range rights ­ crazy quilt allowed ranchers to get huge amounts of
land cheaply
· skilful breeding ­ heavier cattle to survive plains, increased profit
· publicity ­ encouraged people to take up cattle ranching
· defeat of rustlers ­ allowed ranchers to trade unhindered


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