The Development Gap

revision notes for geography gcse aqa development topic

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The Development Gap
Traditional ways of dividing the world
First, second, third, fourth world. From western point of view, first wealthy, fourth
least wealthy, possibly declining
North/ South divide ­ Brant line, based on GNP per Capita, North wealthier
Five-fold division- 1. Rich industrialising (most developed countries) Northern
Hemisphere, Russia, Western Europe, USA, Canada, Iceland, Australia 2. Oil exporting
(quite rich, high GNI, wealth often belongs to a few people and rest quite poor)
North Africa, Middle East 3. Newly industrialising (NICs) (rapidly getting richer as
economy moves from being primary industry ­ agriculture to secondary industry ­
manufacturing) Southern Asia, South Africa, Brazil, Mexico 4. Former centrally
planned economies (Communist) (not rich not poor, developing quickly but not as
quickly as NICs) Central Asia, East Europe 5. Heavily indebted poor(the poorest least
developed countries) Most of Africa, Paraguay, Bolivia, Honduras, Nicaragua
Development measures
Development is when a country is improving meaning that it gets better for the people living
Any measure that tells us about wealth, poverty, economic development etc. Should
correlate with other similar measures
It is hard to measure
Low GNP per capita- most people on subsistenance agriculture, living standard is low,
limited education and healthcare
More developed ­ lower birth rate, high HDI, low infant mortality, access to clean
water, lots of doctors
One measure not usually that useful as some rather basic/narrow pictures. They are
an average and don't show up elite groups in population or variations in a countries
Shouldn't be used on own as some aspects develop before others so it may actually
be more developed than it seems
Best way to compare is using more than one measure ­ best of all is a mixture of
social and economic factors
HDI uses life expectancy at birth, level of education including literacy rate, and
purchasing power.
High GNI countries tend to have low death rates and high life expectancy as more
money to spend on healthcare
High percentage of people with access to clean water have low infant mortality rates
as fewer babies die from water borne diseases

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Standard of Living and Quality of life
As country develops both increase
Standard of living is material wealth like income and whether own a car
Quality of life includes standard of living and other things which are hard to measure
such as how safe they are and how nice the environment is
Generally the higher the standard of living the better the quality of life but someone
can have a very high standard of living but live somewhere where there is lots of
crime and…read more

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Health systems
World trade unfair
Hurricane Mitch
Maximum sustained winds of 180mph
Formed in western Caribbean sea Oct 22
Category 5 hurricane
Dropped lots of rain as it was very slow motion
Affected Nicaragua and Honduras most
Nicaragua Honduras
Short term impacts 3000 people killed 7000 people killed
340 schools, 90 health 70% of crops destroyed
centres, destroyed or 70-80% of transport
damaged infrastructure severely
23,900 houses destroyed damaged
and 17, 600 damaged 35,000 houses destroyed
70% of roads unusable and 50,000 damaged
71…read more

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Change for the better in terms of social and economic development without reduction in
biodiversity other resources in order for development to take place in the future
Drop the debt ­ campaign to as G8 countries to cancel debt of LEDCs (previously paying
interest, LEDCs have more money available to invest in developing industry, healthcare,
Conservation Swap ­ A government or an international organisation takes on or cancels a
proportion of debt in exchange for protection of an ecologically sensitive area.…read more

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Began in 1957
Based on 4 main ideas ­Free movement of People/Goods/Services/Capital
Made up of 27 countries
Originally focussed on trade and economics ­ grew to include other areas of
All countries improve conditions and trade is very easy between members
To join have to prove understand EU principles
Spread from the centre out
Currently working towards climate change as a whole
15 countries use Euro which ensures price stability.…read more

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They also set up quotas to control the
supply ( restriction on how much can sell), and tariffs to control the price
The turned out to increase the agricultural productivity
The EU then introduced subsidies to stop farmers producing excess food ­ a policy
of set aside which meant that farmers were paid not to farm on land and to keep
fallow land
The objectives of the common agricultural policy was to ­ increase agricultural
productivity, ensure a fair standard of living, stabilise markets, assure…read more


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