The Cold War (International Relations) Section 6 - edexcel

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Détente ­ a French word to describe relaxed relations between the USA and USSR in the 60s
and 70s.
1967 ­ Outer Space Treaty: no nuclear weapons in space.
1968 ­ Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
> Not help other countries get nuclear weapons.
> Without, not try to get them.
> With, talk about disarmament.
1972: SALT I
> Limited nuclear weapons.
> No further production of strategic ballistic missiles.
> Submarines only introduced as replacements.
1975: Helsinki Conference
> Treaty on human rights, cooperation between superpowers (trade, crime, terrorism).
Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan
- USA didn't get involved in Czechoslovakia.
- 1979: Taraki assassinated, Hafizullah Amin made president.
- USSR suspected Amin to be an American spy, though he was communist.
- Amin was unpopular with Muslims in Afghanistan ­ unstable?
- USSR worried about Afghanistan turning into an Islamic country ­ others would follow.
- Karmal was an Afghan communist ­ had support but needed Soviet military help.
- 1979 ­ USSR sent troops to Afghanistan to take control after Taraki assassinated.
- Amin was killed. Karmal declared president until 1986.
- 1.5million died in civil war 1979-86: Karmal VS Mujahideen.
The US Response ­ The Carter Doctrine 1980
- Use force if USSR attempt to take control of the Persian Gulf.
- Economic Sanctions
- Alliance with China and Israel, to back Afghan rebels: Mujahideen, against the Soviets.
- Broke off diplomatic relations, refused to sign SALT II.
- USA boycott 1980 Olympics in Moscow ­ USSR boycott 1980 Olympics in Los Angeles.
Why did Carter react like this?

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Worried the USSR would gain control in the Middle East.
- Soviet Influence in Iran.
- Iran could block Middle East oil exports at the Straits of Hormuz ­ oil was essential to the USA's
prosperity.
The USSR backed the Afghan Government, but the USA secretly funded Afghan opposition to the
government.
The Second Cold War
- Ronal Reagan became US president in 1981.…read more

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Geneva 1985: Reagan ­ wanted to persuade Gorbachev that peace was the aim.
Gorbachev ­ wanted to persuade Reagan to drop SDI plan.
- Reykjavik 1986: Both cut down on nuclear weapons.
Reagan ­ scrap all nuclear ballistic missiles.
Gorbachev ­ unwilling, unless Reagan scrap SDI plan (he didn't want to).
Result = INF Treaty ­ Signed in Dec 1987
- Nuclear weapons with a 500-5500km range got rid of.
- More effective than SALT I (only limited growth of stockpiles).…read more

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Democratic elections announced in Hungary, many East Germans began to head to
West Germany through Hungary.
- East German gov announced greater freedom for travel.
- 9th November 1989 ­ announced that East Germans could cross the border to West
Berlin.
- People dismantled and destroyed the wall.
- David Hasselhoff performed `Looking for Freedom', standing on the Berlin Wall.
End of the Warsaw Pact
- Military cooperation ended in 1990, formally dissolved in 1991.
- Poland left, then Hungary, and then East Germany.…read more

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