The Coastal Zone

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The Coastal Zone
Swash- The forward movement of a wave up a beach.
Backwash- The backward movement of a wave down a beach when the wave has broken.
Erosion- Breaking down and transportation of rocks.
Weathering- The breaking down of rocks.
Deposition- Dropping the sediment moved through transporation.
Wave- cute platform- A wide, gently rocky surface at the fort of a cliff.
Wave-cut notch- A small indentation cut into a cliff roughly at the level of high tide caused by
concentrated marine erosion at this level.
What are salt marshes ?
Salt marsh- Low-lying coastal wetland mostly extended between high and low tide.
They are places where the sea has flooded the land between high and low tide and example of one would
be key haven marshes which is located behind Hurst castle spit on the south coast of England , many salt
marshes form behind a bar or spit because they shelter the marsh which is made up from soft mud and
other soft rocks ( which puts it at risk from erosion ) from erosion
Types of mass movement
Mass movement is the movement of land under the force of gravity
Rotational slip movement - this happens at Barton on sea on the south coast of the UK the land gets
filled with water that goes down through the sand soil and gravel where it meets clay which is and
impermeable rock and there is a build up of water which reduces the power of friction and allows gravity to
pull the heavy water logged top layer down to the ground in a curved sort of shape which demonstrates
slumping
Definition - slump of saturated soil and weak rock on a curved surface
Rock falls- which weathered rock (often freeze thaw) fall to the ground and creates scree at the bottom
of a cliff
Landslide- blocks of rock slide down hill this does happen after earthquakes in some cases and can happen
in a slumping motion see below you could also say that that is rotational slip as it is a curved surface?
Mudslide is when a river / stream saturates the soil and the thick mud slides down a hill creating a lobe
shape at the bottom of the hill.
Waves
Created when wind blow over the surface of sea causing friction.
Size and energy of wave varies according to it's speed and amount of time it has been moving
The distance over which a wave has travelled is called the fetch.
A wave breaks when friction with the seabed slows down the bottom of the wave, but the top continues
at same rate and topples forward.
Types of wave
Constructive:
Strong swash
Depositional
Circular Orbit
Great wave length
Small wave height
Swash exceeds backwash
Destructive:
The opposite of Constructive

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The fetch, the strength of the wind and the wave shape all affect the strength of the wave.
Processes of Erosion
Hydraulic Action ­ Water is forced into cracks in rock under pressure, this breaks up the rock.
Abrasion ­ Sand, pebbles and large stones scrape against the rock, wearing it away like sandpaper.
Attrition ­ Chunks of rock get knocked together and worn into smaller bits.…read more

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Spits and Bars
Spit at Dawlish Warren from river Exe and spit at spurn point from river Hember.
Spit- A finger of new land made of sand or shingle, jutting out into the sea from the coast.
Bar- A spit that has grown across the bay.
Hook- Area of land where spit has curved because of a short term change in wind direction.
Spits are formed when there is a change in direction in the coastline.…read more

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Coastal management strategies
Hard engineering is not sustainable.
Hard engineering Defence: Advantages Disadvantages
Sea wall ­ a wall which Prevents erosion. Very expensive to build and
absorbs wave energy and Also prevents flooding maintain.
stops damage. Causes visual pollution.
Groynes ­ fences which Bigger beaches = more tourism. Deprives beaches further along
trap sediment being the coastline. Cause narrower
transported by longshore beaches, which leads to more
drift. erosion.
Gabions ­ cages of rocks Traps material as well as absorb Visual pollution.…read more

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Set backs- Not building too No need for protection Bad for tourism- want to
be near beach.
Close to the coast
Shoreline vegetation- Slows down erosion People walking on it will
kill it. Takes a
Planting marsh beds (binds long time to settle.
Beach together).
Holderness Coast
On the East coast of the U.K in Yorkshire.
Flamborough Head:
Made of chalk so is a hard rock and hard to erode. Is a headland because it's resisted erosion.
Has wave-cut notches, caves, arches and stacks.…read more

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Spit of sand and shingle which has been deposited there.
Causes of rising sea level
Melting of the ice caps, as the world is getting hotter. More volume of water is added to the sea, therefore
the sea level rises.
Heating of oceans ­ if they are hotter, the particles take up more space, and sea levels rise.
Weathering
Biological ­ The break up of rocks due to the action of plants and animals e.g. plants roots going into the cracks of
rocks.…read more

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