The Changing State Of The Fascist Party 1919 21

Description and impact of the changing policies of the Fascist party, 1919-21 for Edexcel AS History Modern, Italy and Fascism 1919-25

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Changing state of the Fascist Party
(191922)
The Fascist party was founded in March 1919 at an open meeting in Milan, attended by
around 100 people a mixture of anarchists, republicans, nationalists and
futurists and other radicals. They had little in common but a hatred of liberalism.
Between the years of 1919 and 21, fascist policies changed drastically, as did their
membership which grew as a result:
JUNE 1919 POLICIES NOV 1921 POLICIES
A republic with universal male and female No specific commitment on political
suffrage (democratic) structure except one designed to ensure
Italy's historic destiny
An eight hour working day and guaranteed An eight hour working day with exceptions
minimum wage (socialist) for agricultural or industrial requirements
(capitalist)
Worker's participation in the management of Corporations to express national solidarity
industry through National Councils of Labour and increase production (nationalist)
(socialist
Common education for all (socialist) Schools to train the governing elite and to
provide Italy's future soldiers with physical
and moral training (militaristic)
Liberty of conscience and opinion Citizens' freedom limited in interests of the
(libertarian) nation
Abolition of obligatory military service Obligatory military service (militaristic)
(libertarian)
Heavy and progressive tax on capital, Taxes proportional to income, not
confiscation of unproductive income confiscatory
(socialist)
The nationalisation of all arms and munitions Nationalised firms privatized, encouragement
factories, confiscation of 85% war profits for national wealth through individual
(socialist) initiative, government spending cuts
(capitalist)
The confiscation of all property belonging to No reference to church property
religious organisations (anti clerical)
A foreign policy of peaceful competition Complete unification for Italy with a major
among the civilised nations (internationalist) role in the Mediterranean
Key Characteristics in:
1919 1921
Democratic Nationalist
Republican (want monarchy removed) Less socialist
Anti clerical Capitalist
Civil rights Militaristic
Liberal/socialist Less Libertarian
Internationalist More authoritarian
Libertarian Monarchist
Nov 1919: Fascists gain around 2% of the vote, 0 seats
May 1921:Fascists gain around 7% of the vote, 35 seats
Nov 1922: Mussolini invited to become Prime Minister. Around 0.5 million members of
Fascism
The appeal of Fascism
Supporters included (in 1921):
Industrialists(factory owners) to fight against the government which was harming
the industry's interests
Exofficers (war veterans) have looked for but cannot find employment
Public employees annoyed by the lack of food and feel ignored by the socialists
Brokers, shopkeepers and contractors hit by economic slump and hate labour
unions
Bands of adolescents (1619) didn't manage to do much for the country due to
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Ex revolutionaries want to recapture their power
NationalistsFascism stressed national identity and the desirability of national
strength and glory this also appealed to war veterans who despised the numerous
politicians who had opposed the war and felt betrayed by the "mutilated victory"
Disillusioned socialiststhe left wing political programme with quite revolutionary
social and economic changes
Latifundisti/Agari fear socialism, want someone to stand up for them, scared
peasants will want to grab land back
Catholic churchfascists said that they would resolve the "Roman question"
2…read more

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