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The Cell Cycle

The mitotic phase can be sub-divided into four phases (prophase, metaphase, anaphase and
telophase). Mitosis is strictly nuclear division, and is followed by cytoplasmic division, or
cytokinesis, to complete cell division. The growth and synthesis phases are collectively called
interphase (i.e. in between cell division). Mitosis results…

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spindle fibres disperse
nuclear membranes from around each set of
nucleoli form

In animal cells a ring of actin filaments forms
round the equator of the cell, and then tightens
to form a cleavage furrow, which splits the cell
in two.

In plant cells vesicles move to…

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Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction
Sexual reproduction is the production of offspring from two parent using gametes. The cells
of the offspring have two sets of chromosomes (one from each parent), so are diploid.
Sexual reproduction involves two stages:
Meiosis- the special cell division that makes haploid gametes
Fertilisation- the fusion…

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micrograph of a single chromosome

Homologous Chromosomes

The chromosomes are numbered from largest to smallest.
Chromosomes come in pairs, called homologous pairs ("same shaped"). So there are
two chromosome number 1s, two chromosome number 2s, etc, and humans really
have 23 pairs of chromosomes. Homologous chromosomes are a result of…


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