The body in action

the body in action

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  • Created by: Hayley
  • Created on: 29-10-10 14:11
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The Body In action
The adult human body has 206 bones the infant human body has approximately three hundred
bones this is because when babies are first born there bones are small and made out of cartilage ­
which is a soft, strong elastic tissue. The process of bones turning from cartilage to bone is called
`ossification'. Osteoblasts are bone forming cells which help this process.
Our skeleton has many functions in sport, without it we would be jelly as the skeleton gives us
support and allows movement at a joint. The skeleton protects many of our vital organs such as our
heart, lungs and our brain with out these we would be dead. The skeleton forms our shape and also
blood is produced in the marrow of long bones. Our skeleton needs the help of ligaments (connects
bone to bone), tendons (connects muscles to bone) and muscles to be able to move.
There are different types of muscles which do different jobs and have different characteristics in the
human body. The types of muscles are:
Smooth (Involuntary) muscles
Smooth muscles are the muscles that are in the intestines and in other parts of the digestive system.
Involuntary muscles are the muscles we have no conscious control over these muscles include the
ones that make us blink.
Cardiac Muscle
A cardiac muscle is unique to the heart as it never tires in our life times.
Skeletal (Voluntary) Muscles
Voluntary muscles are the muscles that we have full conscious control over these muscles include
the bicep, triceps, hamstring, quadriceps, Gastrocnemius and many more.

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Some muscles are in pairs such as the bicep and triceps in the arms and the hamstring and
quadriceps in the upper legs, these pairs are called antagonistic pairs. This move by the prime mover
contracting the other muscle relaxes.
Muscle contractions
Concentric contraction is the main type of muscle contraction. In this type of contraction, the muscle
gets shorter and the two ends of the muscle move closer together. This muscular contraction takes
place in front crawl and breast stroke arm pulls.…read more

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The effects of exercise on the body
The purpose of training is to become fitter so that the body is able to cope
more easily with the physical demands placed upon it.
As soon as you take part in physical activity your body experiences some immediate effects. These
are changes that take place on a temporary basis straight away to give immediate help, so that you
can complete the work you are asking your body to do.…read more

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Bones Type of synovial Movement Sporting event
Atlas and axis Pivot rotation Heading a ball in
Scapula and humerous Ball and socket Rotation Swimming butterfly
Adduction arms
Humerous, radius and Hinge Abduction Chest pass in netball
ulna Adduction
Carpal, radius and Gliding Rotation Throwing a dart
ulna ellipsoid Pronation
Table tennis forehand
Pelvis and femur Ball and socket Rotation Breast stroke kick
Femur and tibia hinge Flexion Kicking a ball
Fibula, tibia and Gliding Plantar flexion Tap…read more

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An exercise session
Warm up
A warm up should last for five to ten minutes. There are three main functions of a warm up, they are:
o To increase the heart rate
o To raise the body temperature
o To prepare the major joints
The warm up should increase the heart rate in order to pump more blood around the body to the
working muscles, in preparation for exercise.…read more

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Cool down
The cool down should last for 45 minutes. The cool down is used to reduce pulse and to return
amounts of blood back to the heart to get rid of lactic acid in the muscles. The exercises in a cool
down should be stretching the muscles to avoid soreness and tightness. Take in fluid to prevent
dehydration.…read more

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The Heart
Is a muscular organ in the circulatory system that
constantly pumps blood throughout the body.
Semi lunar valves
Valves that prevent blood from returning to the ventricles
after contraction.
Arterioles subdivide into capillaries, which are the smallest blood vessels in the body. They
are one cell thick- to allow gaseous exchange. A capillary bed is the capillary structure
found in a body organ or skeletal muscle. Capillary beds contain thousands or millions of
capillaries for each muscle structure or body organ.…read more

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The aortic and pulmonary valves guard
the bases of the larger arteries
attached to the ventricles and
prevent backflow into the ventricles.
The aortic and pulmonary valves are
known as semi lunar valves. These
valves open and close in response to
difference in pressure. When the
ventricles are contracting, the valves
are forced open as the blood rushes
past them. When the ventricles relax,
and the blood (no longer forced
forwards) flows backwards towards the
heart, the valves close.…read more


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