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The Body In action

The adult human body has 206 bones the infant human body has approximately three hundred
bones this is because when babies are first born there bones are small and made out of cartilage ­
which is a soft, strong elastic tissue. The process of bones turning…

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Some muscles are in pairs such as the bicep and triceps in the arms and the hamstring and
quadriceps in the upper legs, these pairs are called antagonistic pairs. This move by the prime mover
contracting the other muscle relaxes.

Muscle contractions


Concentric contraction is the main type of…

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The effects of exercise on the body

The purpose of training is to become fitter so that the body is able to cope
more easily with the physical demands placed upon it.
As soon as you take part in physical activity your body experiences some immediate effects. These
are changes…

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Bones Type of synovial Movement Sporting event
Atlas and axis Pivot rotation Heading a ball in
Scapula and humerous Ball and socket Rotation Swimming butterfly
Adduction arms
Humerous, radius and Hinge Abduction Chest pass in netball
ulna Adduction

Carpal, radius and Gliding Rotation Throwing a dart…

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An exercise session

Warm up

A warm up should last for five to ten minutes. There are three main functions of a warm up, they are:

o To increase the heart rate
o To raise the body temperature
o To prepare the major joints

The warm up should increase the…

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Cool down

The cool down should last for 45 minutes. The cool down is used to reduce pulse and to return
amounts of blood back to the heart to get rid of lactic acid in the muscles. The exercises in a cool
down should be stretching the muscles to avoid…

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The Heart
Is a muscular organ in the circulatory system that
constantly pumps blood throughout the body.

Semi lunar valves

Valves that prevent blood from returning to the ventricles
after contraction.


Arterioles subdivide into capillaries, which are the smallest blood vessels in the body. They
are one cell thick-…

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Bicuspid and tricuspid valve

The bicuspid valve is situated between the left atrium and
the left ventricle. It permits blood to flow only one way,
from the left atrium into the left ventricle.

The tricuspid valve is situated between the right atrium
and the right ventricle.

The job of the…

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The aortic and pulmonary valves guard
the bases of the larger arteries
attached to the ventricles and
prevent backflow into the ventricles.
The aortic and pulmonary valves are
known as semi lunar valves. These
valves open and close in response to
difference in pressure. When the
ventricles are contracting, the…


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