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The Birmingham Campaign (1963)
Why Birmingham?
During the Freedom Rides, Birmingham's police chief Eugene `Bull' Connor refused to
protect the riders and had even granted the local police the day off, thereby giving a green
light to local racists. Violence broke out and the Federal Government had to intervene to…

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Large department stores were desegregated.
Racial discrimination in employment was ended.

Birmingham had persuaded Kennedy of the need for federal intervention in civil rights in
order to prevent a complete breakdown in law and order. He also made a public
commitment to support a Civil Rights Bill.

However, schools and…


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