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1. Formulae, equations and amounts of substance


Nuclei of atoms are made up of protons and neutrons
The electrons in the atom occupy the space outside the nucleus
Protons have a positive charge
Electrons have a negative charge
Neutrons have no charge

An element is a substance that cannot…

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Many chemical reactions do not involve ions
Nonmetals generally gain electrons to achieve a stable outer shell
When nonmetals react together, the atoms achieve full outer shells by sharing
electrons covalent bonding
Strong bonds between atoms=covalent bonds


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