the end of Consensus - Foreign Policy (Modern Britain AQA complete notes 7/16)

These notes are for the 'Making of Modern Britain' course on AQA and as such follow the spec, although would be useful for all modern britian courses. They contain hystoriography, detail and explanations. 

The notes are devided into the sections of the spec, therefore there are 16 documents (as there are 4 areas (politics, economics, society, and foriegn policy) and there are 4 periods (Post war, Wilson + heath, Thatcher, and Blair)). 

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  • Created on: 08-10-15 22:53
Preview of the end of Consensus - Foreign Policy (Modern Britain AQA complete notes 7/16)

First 581 words of the document:

The
End
of
Consensus
­
Foreign
policy
Withdrawal
from
commitment
and
bases
`east
of
Suez',
1967-1971;
the
problem
of
Rhodesia;
Britain's
entry
into
the
EEC
in
1973
Withdrawal
from
East
of
Suez
Process
- 1966
February:
Denis
Healy's
defence
review.
o Intention
to
withdraw
from
Aden,
but
keep
bases
in
Malaysia
and
Singapore.
- 1967
February:
Defence
White
Paper
o Withdrawal
from
Simonstown
(South
Africa)
announced.
- 1967
July:
announcement
of
intention
to
withdraw
everything
by
early
1970s
East
of
Suez
o Britain
would
only
maintain
small
garrisons
in
Hong
Kong,
Gibraltar,
Belize,
and
the
Falkland
Islands.
- 1968
January
Defence
Review.
o Confirmed
intention
to
withdraw
from
Singapore,
Malaysia
and
the
Gulf
by
the
end
of
1971
Reasons
for
keeping
troops
- America
was
considered
about
power
vacuum
and
the
domino
effect
- Treaty
meant
that
it
had
assured
defence
o Legally
bound
o E.g.
Manila
pact
- Bureaucratic
intarsia
­
they
were
waiting
until
there
were
no
other
options.
- Wishing
for
Britain
to
retain
a
world
role.
o It
would
be
an
admission
that
they
were
no
longer
a
world
power.
- British
troops
were
often
involved
in
International
defence.
o Not
for
British
Empire
(no
longer
there),
but
to
protect
other
countries.
Reasons
for
leaving
- Main
reason
for
military
bases
was
no
longer
required.
o Indian
independence
had
shown
independence.
o Suez
showed
no
longer
world
power.
o Focus
was
on
West
Germany,
rather
than
world.
- Cost
of
keeping
reasonability's
o Public
discontent,
as
public
saw
nothing
of
it.
o Cost
of
keeping
bases
could
be
spent
elsewhere.
o Defence
budget
cut
by
1%
of
GDP.
o Most
wealthy
elements
Suez
and
India,
were
already
lost.
o Overtaken
GDP
wise
per
capita
by
Germany,
France
and
Denmark.
o 55000
personnel
-
£2120
million
­
15%
of
defence.
- Change
in
international
trade
patterns

Other pages in this set

Page 2

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British
trade
had
moved
from
the
commonwealth
to
the
EU,
and
other
western
countries,
such
as
the
USA.
o Between
1955
and
1965,
changes
in
export
patterns
! Overseas
Sterling
Area
­
a
half
of
trade
to
a
third.
! Western
Europe/USA
­
a
third
to
half.
- Political
factors
o Labour
in
Power
­
less
support
for
o Confrontation
­
Malaysia-
Indonesia
border
dispute
ender
in
1966.
o Wilson
committed
increasingly
to
welfare
over
international.…read more

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UN
resolutions
calling
all
states
to
refuse
recognition
commending
`illegal
authority'.
Mandatory
trade
sanctions.
o Supported
by
all
except
South
Africa,
Portugal
and
France
abstained.
- Economic
sanctions
o Backed
by
commonwealth
and
UN.
o Exposition
from
OSA
o Ban
on
Rhodesia
sugar,
tobacco,
chrome
o Oil
Boycott
and
subsequent
attempt
to
cut
off
supply
lines
directly
by
posting
a
Royal
Navy
squadron
to
Mozambique.
- Ineffective
sanctions
o South
Africa
and
Portugal
carried
on
as
normal,
other
nations
continued
trading
but
at
lower
rates.…read more

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Labour
Mps
signed
the
Tribune
anti-Market
manifesto.
! 35
Labour
MPs
voted
against
joining.
- Actions
o Early
in
1967
Wilson
did
a
tour
of
the
European
capitals.
o There
were
concerns
from
French
embassy
of
a
De
Galle
Veto.
o
16th
may
de
Gaulle
vetoed.
o Didn't
withdraw
British
application,
just
left
it
on
the
table.
Historiography
- Sked
and
Cook
o `The
most
dramatic
reversal
in
foreign
affairs
during
this
period
concerned
the
Common
Market.'
o `Divisions
over
Britain's
[foreign
policy]...…read more

Page 5

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July
Wilson
sent
Harold
Davies,
Joint
parliamentary
seritary
to
the
ministry
of
pensions
to
Hanoi.
! Very
little
came
of
the
meeting.
Economy
- USA
lend
money
- US
Gold
reserves
falling,
so
asked
London
to
close
London
Gold
Market.
o UK
did
this
for
second
half
of
March.
- Good
relations
were
vital
to
gain
this
money.
o Hence,
no
condemnation
of
Vietnam.
Small
other
matters
in
the
world
- Created
Ministry
of
overseas
development
o Created
on
coming
to
power.…read more

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De
Galle
left,
and
with
it
his
Anglophobia.
Change
o December
Hague
conference
decision
taken
to
strengthen
and
enlarge
the
EEC.
- Issues
o Common
Agricultural
policy
o Community
budget
- Concessions
o 6
years
phasing
of
aspects
! Common
agricultural
policy
! Community
budget
! Common
external
tariff
o Transitional
terms
! New
Zealand
exchanges
! Commonwealth
sugar
producers.
- 1
January
1973
­
Britain
became
a
full
member
of
the
EEC.
Historiography
- W.
Rubenstein
o `It
was
Heath's
single
greatest
achievement'.…read more

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Labour
and
Liberals,
told
the
government
they
should.
o Portugal
were
reported
to
be
massacring
in
Mozambique.
- Refusal
to
publicly
condemn
French
Nuclear
tests
o Heath
and
government
said
the
French
knew
they
opposed.
o Refused
to
make
public
statement,
as
Australia
and
New
Zealand
had.
o Good
terms
with
French
were
important
in
EEC
negotiations.…read more

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