The Calendonian Orogeny

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The Caledonian Orogeny
NESW Trend
Result of the Laurentian continent colliding with Gondwanaland
Moine Thrust Fault
Highland Boundary Fault
Great Glen Fault
Southern Uplands Fault
High grade regional metamorphism in Scotland:
Gniess and Schists
Lower grade regional metamorphism in Wales:
Schists and Slate
Metamorphism suggests heat/ pressure at depth in
continental crust
The subduction of the Iapetus Ocean formed volcanoes, whose ash deposits can still be
seen in the Lake District.
Major plutonic intrusions (Granites: Granites suggest deep crustal melting) are now
exposed by erosion in Scotland
Fossil Evidence
At Moffat, fossil evidence including trilobites and graptolites, indicates a former shallow
and deeper water environment.
Greywackes were deposited in the shallow waters of the subduction trench, whilst black
shales were deposited further out on the deep ocean floor (abyssal plain)
Produced Himalayan sized Fold Mountains
Thrusting along the NorthWest Margin of the fold belt to form the Moine Thrust fault

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Associated with the subduction of the Iapetus Ocean…read more


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