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Fibres and Fabrics
Natural Natural Natural Regenerated synthetic Inorganic
Animal plant mineral
Wool cotton Abestos viscose Polyester, Glass fibre
trevira,
polartec
silk linen silicate modal Polymide Carbon fibre
(Nylon)
Tactel
mohair ramie acetate Acrylic, Metallic fibre
courtelle
cashmere Tencell Elastane
(Lycra)
lyocell PVC


Natural Fibres
Come from plants, animals or…

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silk
Produced by the caterpillar of the Bombyx Mori Moth
Continuous fibre
Triangular cross section

Properties linked to structure
Lustrous
Lightweight
Smooth
Strong fibre but weak when wet
Warm and absorbent
Dyes easily

Minus points
Needs careful washing
Weak when wet
Creases badly but creases drop out
Expensive




Natural Plant…

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Linen
Bast fibre from a flax plant
Fibre can be up to 40cm long but is cut to a staple fibre
Cross marling and nodes appear on the fibre
Cross section is angular with slight lustre

Properties linked to structure
Strong and durable
Smooth surface slight sheen
Highly absorbent
Cool…

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Man-Mad fibres

Regenerated fibres
Are made from natural materials that are chemically treated
The manmade fibre is turned into a yarn by dissolving cellulose in a
chemical. Liquid if forced through the holes in a spinneret. This is then
hardened to for a fibre which is stretched into a yarn…

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50% more water absorbent than cotton
Resistant to shrinkage and fading
Durable
Smooth and soft




Acetate
Derived from wood pulp
Similar to silk but not the same texture
Will melt if it comes into contact with nail polish or remover

Properties
Water resistant
Shrink resistant
Does not crease easily
Easy…

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Non renewable source
Non biodegradable
Looses strength with long exposure to sunlight




Polymide (Nylon)
Made from petrochemicals and are inexpensive to produce
Circular cross section and smooth surface
Poor insulators
Produced as a filament fibre
Made of thermoplastic polymers, so soften when heated

Properties linked to structure
Strong and hardwearing…

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Made from petrochemicals
Developed as a synthetic wool fibre and used in knitted products
Produced as a filament fibre but is stretched to breaking point resulting in
random lengths
Large variety of acrylic fibres
Aperance is usually smooth and regular

Properties linked to structure
Strong except when wet
Soft
Warm…

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