Textiles: Fibres and Fabrics

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Fibres and Fabrics
Natural Natural Natural Regenerated synthetic Inorganic
Animal plant mineral
Wool cotton Abestos viscose Polyester, Glass fibre
trevira,
polartec
silk linen silicate modal Polymide Carbon fibre
(Nylon)
Tactel
mohair ramie acetate Acrylic, Metallic fibre
courtelle
cashmere Tencell Elastane
(Lycra)
lyocell PVC
Natural Fibres
Come from plants, animals or minerals
To turn a natural fibre into a yarn, fibres must be harvested and cleaned.
They are then straightened by being carded and then spun with an "S" or "Z"
twist
All natural fibres are staple fibres except for silk
Natural animal
Wool
Comes from a sheep
Fibre is similar to human hair
Surface of the fibre had overlapping scales
The scales can lock together in the presence of heat, moisture and friction.
This makes the wool shrink
Natural crimp and scales allow the fibre to trap air making it soft and warm
Properties linked to its structure
Soft and warm
Does not crease easily
Naturally water repellent
Breathable
Absorbent
Biodegradable and recyclable
Fire resistant
Minus points
Shrinks badly (known as felting) but can be stopped with a special finish
It can take a long time to dry because it is very absorbent

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Produced by the caterpillar of the Bombyx Mori Moth
Continuous fibre
Triangular cross section
Properties linked to structure
Lustrous
Lightweight
Smooth
Strong fibre but weak when wet
Warm and absorbent
Dyes easily
Minus points
Needs careful washing
Weak when wet
Creases badly but creases drop out
Expensive
Natural Plant
Cotton
Comes from a ripe seed or pod
Immature cotton fibre has a round cross section
The fibre dries out when harvested and collapses into a twisted tube
The tube does not reflect light well, so…read more

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Linen
Bast fibre from a flax plant
Fibre can be up to 40cm long but is cut to a staple fibre
Cross marling and nodes appear on the fibre
Cross section is angular with slight lustre
Properties linked to structure
Strong and durable
Smooth surface slight sheen
Highly absorbent
Cool to wear
Crisp firm handle
Biodegradable and recyclable
Can be washed at a high temp
Minus points
Low elasticity
Creases badly
Can be expensive
Ramie
Comes from a plant with similar properties to the flax…read more

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Man-Mad fibres
Regenerated fibres
Are made from natural materials that are chemically treated
The manmade fibre is turned into a yarn by dissolving cellulose in a
chemical. Liquid if forced through the holes in a spinneret. This is then
hardened to for a fibre which is stretched into a yarn
Viscose/rayon
Uses cellulose from wood pulp, which is dissolved in a chemical and then
forced through a spinneret and then hardened to become a fibre.…read more

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Resistant to shrinkage and fading
Durable
Smooth and soft
Acetate
Derived from wood pulp
Similar to silk but not the same texture
Will melt if it comes into contact with nail polish or remover
Properties
Water resistant
Shrink resistant
Does not crease easily
Easy to dye
Synthetic fibres
Made from polymers from coal and oil and other petrol based chemicals
Polymers are dissolved in a solution and forced through hooks in a spinneret
to form a filament fibre, They are then stretched into a yarn.…read more

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Non renewable source
Non biodegradable
Looses strength with long exposure to sunlight
Polymide (Nylon)
Made from petrochemicals and are inexpensive to produce
Circular cross section and smooth surface
Poor insulators
Produced as a filament fibre
Made of thermoplastic polymers, so soften when heated
Properties linked to structure
Strong and hardwearing
Good elasticity
Does not crease
Thermoplastic so can be heat set
Non absorbent but can be modified to wick away moisture
Minus points
Prone to static
Non renewable
Non biodegradable
Looses strength when exposed to…read more

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Made from petrochemicals
Developed as a synthetic wool fibre and used in knitted products
Produced as a filament fibre but is stretched to breaking point resulting in
random lengths
Large variety of acrylic fibres
Aperance is usually smooth and regular
Properties linked to structure
Strong except when wet
Soft
Warm and insulating
Easy care and crease resistant
Doesn't shrink
Can be heat set
Minus points
Non renewable source
Non biodegradable
Elastomeric fibre
Made from petrochemicals/oil
Composed of soft, flexible segments bonded with hard, rigid segments,…read more

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