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Testing for ions and gases

Test's for positive ions / cations

Li+, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Cu2+ - FLAME TESTS

A platinum or nichrome wire is cleaned by dipping it into
concentrated HCl and holding it in a Bunsen flame.
This is repeated until no more colour is seen.
The wire…

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Remove from the heat, and place some damp red litmus paper over the
top of the tube to test the gas being released.

Testing for negative ions (anions)

Cl-, Br-, I- - DILUTE NITRIC ACID AND SILVER NITRATE SOLUTION

The acid is only added to remove any substance that might…

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Testing for gases

Collecting:

1) Downward delivery into a test tube / gas jar
Suitable for gases denser than air ­ Carbon dioxide (CO2), Chlorine (Cl2)




2) Upward delivery into a test tube / gas jar
Suitable for gases less dense than air ­ Hydrogen (H2), Ammonia (NH3)




3) Over…

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H2 = 2H2 (g) + O2 (g) 2H2O (l)

CO2 = Ca(OH)2 (aq) + CO2 (g) CaCO3 (s) + H2O (l)

H2 ­ Test with a lighted splint
Hold a lighted splint over a test tube of gas. If there is a squeaky pop
hydrogen is present.

O2 ­ Test…

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