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When we look at an object we can often
ascertain it's purpose (telos) by either asking
the creator or seeing how it can be used.
The teleological argument views the Universe
as something which is made, which points to a
maker ­ God.…read more

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The Universe shows signs of regularity (the
seasons, orbiting of planets).
This regulation is evidence of an ultimate
Creator.
Thomas Aquinas' 5th Way ­ A natural
inanimate object manages to fulfil purpose by
working in regularity although it has no
intelligence, therefore there must be some
external intelligent being to account for their
purposeful behaviour…read more

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This part of the argument states that the
Universe works together in such a precise way
that it must have been created.
William Paley uses the analogy of the watch; if
you picked up a watch you'd know it's made as
it all fits together. Similarly the Universe fits
together and so must be made. He also used
the eye as an example ­ how it is adapted to
light.
Arthur Brown ­ a feature like the ozone layer
must be seen as `a mighty proof of the Creator'
s forthought'…read more

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One can accept the order and purpose in the
world, but that need not necessarily lead to a
Creator. Pierre Laplace replied to Napoleon "I have
no need of that hypothesis" when asked why he
had not included God in his cosmology.
Hume argues that it is illegitimate to infer purpose
on something when there is no proof that it has
been made. He also said that, supposing the
Universe WAS created, natural and moral evil
suggest an unintelligent or imperfect being as the
creator. He formulated the epicurean hypothesis:
after time randomness will evolve into an ordered
system i.e. The order we see today is not a product
of a creator, but regularity born of irregularity!…read more

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John Stuart Mill agreed with Hume; he thought
that the disorder of the Universe points to a God
which is neither omnipotent, nor benevolent. He
also challenged the idea that this Creator must be
the God of Classical Theism ­ the Universe could
have been created by a host of gods.
In his book Origin of Species Charles Darwin
created the theory of natural selection ­ the idea
that advantageous genotypes survive by
outcompeting the others, resulting in species
adapted to habitat.
William Paley draws parallels between a clock
(something artificially manufactured) and an eye ­
the product of millions of years of evolution. They
cannot compare, and with evolution no reference
to external intelligence is needed as an
explanation.…read more

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