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Tectonics
Seismic ­ movement of earth's crust

Structure of earth, inner core, outer core, mantle, crust

Core is a ball of solid iron and nickel; it is surrounded by the mantle of semi-molten rock that moves very
slowly, outer layer is crust which is very thin (20km). Crust divided into…

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Alps ­ Fold Mountain Case Study

In central Europe, stretches across Austria, France, Germany, Italy, etc

Formed about 30 million years ago by collision between the African and European plates

Tallest peak is Mont Blanc at 4810 on Italian- French border

12 million people

Used for

Farm goats for milk…

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Advantages for living near volcanoes ­ soil fertile, geothermal energy, building materials, tourism, scenery,
minerals, mining

Mt St Helens- Volcano Case Study

Location: - west coast of north America on the ring of fire and the cascade mountain range

Causes of eruption: - Juan de fuca plate (oceanic) is subducting…

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Supervolcanoes are mainly in the northern hemisphere with two in the southern hemisphere, there are 3
quite close to each other in the USA there are 2 of the coast of Asia and two off Australia 7 in total

See PowerPoint

How formed

1. Rising magma can't escape and a…

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Measure magnitude (how much energy) Measures intensity (how much damage)
Uses a seismometer to measure Uses people's opinions, eyewitness
statements, surveys to measure
Scientific scale Good for initial damage
Easier to compare Objective
Standardised scale You don't need technology and can use
historical data
Logarithmic scale:
1=1
2 = 1x10…

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are built, earthquake drill are carried
out regularly


Tsunamis are earthquakes under the sea, a plate is getting pushed down under another plate and just
suddenly jerks back up displacing a large amount of water upwards. An example is the Boxing Day Indian
ocean tsunami between the indo Australian and…

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